What kind of rocket artillery made the Wehrmacht on the Eastern front

Weapons 19/01/20 Some rocket artillery made the Wehrmacht on the Eastern front

In Soviet times, no one doubted that the Red Army was the first who used rocket artillery. Due to the success of Soviet science and the achievements of Soviet industry, the Soviet Union was able to bypass all other countries, and to arm the Red Army with the most modern and high quality weapons. Still others only work with copied best Soviet designs. So it was written in all the books, and want to challenge that in Soviet times was not. Even today, many believe that the German rocket launcher was modeled after the Soviet “Katyusha”, but it turned out much worse than they are.

rocket artillery of the red Army really made a huge contribution to the victory and were used EN masse. In France, the UK, USA before the war were not engaged in the development of this type of weapons. In English and American army rocket artillery became actively used only in the last years of the war. As for Germany, it requires a longer story.
work on the creation of multilateral settings for the shooting jet of chemical shells was carried out in Germany in the late 20-ies. The weapon is designed for chemical warfare (in the Soviet Union for the same purpose), and the use of other ammunition in the fighting was merely a necessary measure.

Initially, the USSR and Germany for the chemical parts of the developed mortars in General. First, the Wehrmacht entered service with the mortar 10 cm Nebelwerfer 35, then a better 10-cm Nebelwerfer 40. For conventional warfare they were good enough, as rounds were even weaker than for the 81-mm mortars, but they cost twice the price. Units armed with these mortars were used from the beginning of the Second World war.
the beginning of the company in France, the Wehrmacht began to arrive, towed six-barreled rocket mortars 15-cm Nebelwerfer 41. These settings were created and tested in 1937, but entered into force only in three years. They were armed with three divisions, but the facts of the application in France is not known. But the reference in the Balkan company of the 41st.
the First mass rocket artillery, the Wehrmacht used on the Eastern front from the first days of the war. Miller Hillebrandt in his book “Land army of Germany,” writes that a new type of weapon since the first days proved to be very effective.

By the time the attack on the Soviet Union in the Wehrmacht, there were four regiments (Nebelwerfer-Regiment), seven separate divisions (Nebelwerfer-Abteilung) and a separate battery, the arms of which consisted of rocket mortars 15 cm Nebelwerfer 41. The battery was six installations in division three batteries in the regiment of the three divisions.
in addition to these parts, there were still five of degassing (Entgiftungs-Abteilung) and two road-degassing (Straßen-Entgiftungs-Abteilung) of the battalion, each of which was eighteen frame installations 28/32 cm schweres Wurfgerat 40.
the Success of rocket artillery at the front, led to the emergence of new models of weapons and the increase in the number of parts and connections.

in 41-m to year appears 28/32-cm Nebelwerfer 41 with six guides. 42-year adopt pyatitonnoy the installation of 21-cm Nebelwerfer 42, pyatnadtsatietazhny 15-cm Nebelwerfer 42 the 30 cm Nebelwerfer 42 with six guides. At the end of the 44th year, the troops enters a 30-cm Raketenwerfer 56 with six guides.

in addition to conventional options have been created and propelled. Armored self-propelled 15-cm Panzerwerfer 42 auf Sf.Sd.Kfz.4 had ten guides and created on the basis of half-track car. A similar installation was made on the basis of half-track tractor schwerer Wehrmacht Schlepper.
weapons of the Waffen SS was adopted-self-propelled 8 cm Raketen-Vielfachwerfer, on the basis of half-track tractor Sf.Sd.Kfz.4, or a captured French half-track tractorand SOMUA MCL. In this installation, copied the Soviet system BM-8-24.

in addition, we used a lot proinnovation samples, with the use of launch containers schweres Wurfgerat 40, on the basis of armored vehicles, captured tanks and tankettes.
In 1942, formed three divisional headquarters (Kommandeur der Nebeltruppen) rocket artillery, consisting of six regiments. At the beginning of the 44th year begin forming a brigade (Werfer-Brigade). The brigade was supposed to have 72 15-cm Nebelwerfer 41, 18 21-cm Nebelwerfer 42 and 18 28/32-cm Nebelwerfer 42. Should have been given one or two companies of self-propelled 15-cm Panzerwerfer 42. By the summer of the 44th year in the Wehrmacht, there were eight brigades by the end of the year their number increased to sixteen. In addition to the Wehrmacht, separate divisions were Waffen-SS (five) and parachute troops (one).

Comparing the Soviet and German (and English and American) system of rocket artillery, it is necessary to consider that a valid comparison is impossible. In different countries, the creation of rocket artillery were set different tasks, using different schemes. Overall, in Germany, and the Soviet Union have created quite the perfect weapon, able to solve its task forces.

Cyril Shishkin

© Russian Seven

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