History 14/02/20 What Basmachi fought for the Red Army in the Civil war
Basmachi – military, political and religious anti-Soviet movement in Central Asia during the Civil war. Its climax it reached in the years 1918-1919, when under the banner of basmachestva stood tens of thousands of local residents. However, by the middle of 1920-ies the movement almost completely disappeared. What is the reason?
the Word “Basmachi” is derived from Uzbek “Basma” – the armed RAID. In the ideological basis of basmachestva lay pan-Turkism and pan-Islamism.
the start Time of the movement is usually considered to be February 1918, when the Red Army finally defeated the self-proclaimed Turkestan autonomy, which covered the territory of present Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan.
a Special activity of the raiders launched in the Ferghana valley and adjacent areas, in Samarkand and Shardarinskoe areas in Khiva, Bukhara and Eastern türkmenbaşy district. Detachments of the Basmachi were divided into small (hundreds of people) and major. The last number could reach several thousand or more.
Their tactics were typical of guerrilla warfare in mountainous and desert areas: Basmachi tried to avoid collision with the numerous and well-armed troops of the enemy. The emphasis was on the organization of ambushes and daring raids of the cavalry. Typically, the locations they are organized in remote places. Intelligence information they were provided by local residents.
According to the laws of war
the robber bands were very serious and treacherous enemy. Their methods of warfare different from battle tactics of the whites, with the Bolsheviks successfully fought in the Civil war. One of the most famous kurbashi (commanders) were Irgas. In the spring of 1918 he made a detachment of 500 men, however, suffered a number of defeats.
But next year he couldto create a group numbering 15 thousand people. In addition, its fighters participated in the anti-Bolshevik uprising in Tashkent in 1919.
in Addition to Ilasa in the area of Fergana there were at least 40 of detachments of the Basmachi. One of them numbering about 700 people, commanded the Madamin Bey. In November 1918, he made a big RAID against located in the district of Ferghana Russian villages.
In Moscow, understanding that the success of Soviet power in Central Asia depends on the struggle with the Basmachi, decide to sending an additional contingent of the red Army. In February-March 1920 the red army on the offensive on troops there.
during the winter was defeated and surrendered to the group of Akbar Ali, mahkam Khodja, Parpi and other commanders a total of more than five thousand people. Suffered heavy losses and the troops Argali. Some of them went to China and Afghanistan.
In 1923 he was completely cleared of gangs, Andijan, Kokand and other Fergana regions. Many leaders of the Basmachi were captured and were placed under the military revolutionary Tribunal, which handed down a death sentence.
In the first 10 months of 1922 in the Ferghana valley, the Red Army destroyed about 120 groups Basmachi total population of more than four thousand people. Were killed 320 commanders, and surrendered 175.
On the territory of Tajikistan because of the difficult mountainous terrain of armed struggle with the Basmachi continued until June 1925. The spring in the mountains there are about 400 brigands. Over the next few months, the red army took control of Dushanbe, Faizabad and other districts.
he was among the Basmachi those who voluntarily agree to stop fighting. So, Madamin-Bek, a detachment of which was laid in February, 1920, agreed on the inclusion of survivors 1200 people in the red Army. On this occasion, commander of the Turkistan front, Mikhail Frunze organized in Fergana military parade.
Defected to the Sovietth power became known as the “red robber bands”. However, some historians argue that their obedience to the command of the red Army was only formal. The fact that when it came to clashes with tribesmen, defectors to fight did not want to.
the majority of the Basmachi were eliminated by the end of 1926. Re-raise his head movement became after the beginning of forced collectivization in the late 1920-ies.
according to historians, the leaders of the Basmachi, many of whom have taken refuge in Afghanistan, some support was provided by the UK. London was beneficial to the weakening of Soviet power in Central Asia.
However, the support of the British and popular discontent did not help the robber bands. By 1933 they were again defeated and completely ousted from the region. The last troops refused an armed confrontation with the Soviets in 1942, when the Soviet Union and Britain have agreed to cease cross-border cold war.
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