History 02/02/20 What the laws of war acted in the rear and at the front
In the early days of the great Patriotic war, martial law was introduced in more than 20 regions and republics of the USSR, as well as in Moscow and Leningrad. From 1941 to 1943 in the criminal legislation of the Soviet Union, there have been many changes, determining liability for the Commission of certain war crimes.
the Most extensive powers, including the right to be shot
According to the lead researcher, Institute of state and law Russian Academy of Sciences Lyudmila Lapteva, the laws of war during the great Patriotic war provided the opportunity of granting of responsible persons the broadest powers – both in military and civilian fields, including the use of capital punishment. Of greater importance was to have the personal factor that greatly accelerated the process of decision-making and resolution of different kinds of problematic situations. It sometimes led to erroneous conclusions, unjustified repression by the NKVD.
the First decrees
on the first day of the war was issued a Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “About military situation”. According to him, a large number of grave and especially grave crimes stipulated at the time the Criminal code of the RSFSR and other Union republics of the Soviet Union came under the military Tribunal. In practice, especially in a combat situation, this meant the accelerated procedure of the judicial proceedings and the imminent enforcement of the sentence.
In early July, the same public authority issued a decree on the punishment for spreading false rumours and scaremongering. Convicted it could earn 2 to 5 years imprisonment. If such a crime was the cause of the Commission of another more serious punishment by a military Tribunal was tightened up to the shooting.
involving children and civil
in July 1941, was “padcharacterowano” the CEC and SNK 6-year-old, which introduced criminal responsibility for children from the age of 12 – now of minors brought to criminal responsibility for certain crimes (including theft), even if they were committed unintentionally.
in December of the same year introduced the criminal responsibility for being late (or leaving work) for workers in enterprises voenproma – the Tribunal was entitled to sentence to prison term to 8 years. A year later, a special decree was determined the criminal liability for poor evacuation of military installations and of all working people – the head faced up to 10 years of imprisonment, this period also appointed military tribunals. In 1942, also introduced criminal liability in respect of the farmers. The plant could not only for absenteeism but also for non-workdays.
At the end of the first year of the Soviet government liberalized its criminal legislation with the purpose of replenishment of the ranks of the red army who was imprisoned in the MLS or in prison by the citizens, distinguished themselves in battle were removed a conviction.
In February 1942, according to the relevant Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council, was declared a mass mobilization of labor among men and women ranging from the age of 16. The Dodgers threatened from her forced labor at the place of residence (up to a year). In the same month, was issued a special decree concerning prisoners of railwaymen and transport workers – if they were healthy enough they were sent to the front in a penal battalion, and patients – to work for the company.
the Most stringent military decrees
the Most “strong” document of the great Patriotic historians call the famous order No. 227, which received the unofficial title of “not one step back!”. It was published in a critical period of the war (July 1942), when, in fact, decided the outcome. The decree explicitly speaks of the death of cowards and alarmists, and the need of formation of compounds in penalty underthe divisions of the red army. The validity of the decree by the researchers of the history of the great Patriotic war is estimated differently. According to historians, for the Commission of certain crimes in the autumn of 1942 to 1945 were convicted of more than 900 thousand soldiers, most of whom passed through the battalions.
In 1943 was introduced the responsibility for participating in the killings and abuse of civilians, soldiers of the red army and of the collaboration itself. For serious crimes after the verdict of the military Tribunal sentenced immediately hanged, supporters of the Nazis, convicted of collaboration with the enemy, were sent to the MLS for a period of 15 to 20 years. In the same year was established and criminal responsibility for the illegal awarding orders and medals, as well as their circulation and sale, donation, etc. – up to 3 years in prison.
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