History 11/01/20 What good did Germany for the Soviet Union before the war,
Conclusion of a nonaggression Pact between the USSR and Germany in August 1939 was a mutually beneficial step. Hitler got a free hand in Western Europe, and through the supply of Soviet oil, nonferrous metals, grain, timber, cotton and other raw materials could significantly strengthen the economic base of the Third Reich to attack the Soviet Union.
But the Soviet Union, in addition to the opportunity to strengthen its borders by the annexation of new territories in Eastern Europe, used the cooperation with the Third Reich to improve its economic, especially military-technical potential.
the Contents of deliveries from Germany
four days before the signing of the nonaggression Pact, August 19, 1939 Soviet Union and Germany signed a loan agreement. According to it, Germany provided the Soviet Union a loan of 200 million marks for the purchase of German industrial goods. 11 Feb 1940 concluded trade agreement between the USSR and Germany for a period of one year. A year later on 10 January 1941, both countries signed a new Economic agreement. According to these documents, the trade turnover between the two countries was expected to exceed 2 billion.
All supplied from Germany, the products belonged to the product group “A” in Soviet classification, that is, the means of production. And to those that the Soviet economy could not create yourself. It was the advanced industrial equipment.
thus, the firm “Krupp” in December 1939, included in the list of goods intended for export to the USSR of the planned Economic agreement, equipment for the production of synthetic gasoline, various presses, diamond cutters, electrodes, cars for various purposes, equipment of special stainless steel for the manufacture of dental prostheses. The range of vehicles includes trucks from 1.8 to 6.5 tons, including vehicles with high cross. Firm “Prorip” included in this list of samples of the latest turning machines.
One of the Newspapers of the Third Reich in October 1939, stated: “the Purchase of cars of Soviet Russia is kept at a consistently high level, mainly in respect of machinery for the military industry”.
In the memoirs of diplomat Valentin Berezhkov, “How I became a translator of Stalin” indicates that during the 22 months of friendly relations of the USSR received from Germany, 15 thousand tons of high-grade steel and 59 thousand tons of steel pipes, more than 6,000 of the latest industrial machines, 20 presses for cartridge and shell casings, 6 warships. Of the latter, the largest was the cruiser “Lutzow”. In the composition of the Baltic fleet it was renamed the Petropavlovsk, and participated in the defense of Leningrad.
As noted by the historian Alexey Baykov, “German delivery not so much fired on the Wehrmacht, many helped to make that shot. Gear cutting and turning machines, electrical and drilling equipment, steam turbines and generators”. An important role has acquired a trip of Soviet specialists military industries to Germany to experience the latest models of German military equipment and the acquisition of documentation on them. Aviation historian Mikhail Mukhin calls and technical innovations that Soviet engineers copied from German models: defrosters bombers, hoods fighters, Proektirovanie the tanks.
Germany was in no hurry to fulfill its obligations to the USSR
Indicative, however, that none of the samples of the German military (land and air) equipment was purchased for the Soviet troops. Introduction of Soviet specialists with the German Panzer industry led them to the delusion that the Germans purposely did not show its latest technology. The fact that the Germans at that time did not have heavy tanks, but the Soviet tank builders it was hard to believe. They saw in Germany what libabout better than our T-34 tanks and HF, or at least comparable with them. In this respect, the cooperation with German firms gave little benefit, to be exact – showed that the Soviet Union in this industry has already achieved superiority, relying on our own strength.
Aviation industry of the USSR did not copy the German planes, although they throughout the war remained better than the Soviet. The reasons for this were several. First, as can be judged from the memoirs of Soviet aircraft designer Alexander Yakovlev, who was in Germany in 1940, the Germans showed their promising models of aircraft fighter Focke-Wulf-190 and especially jet Messerschmitt-262. However, demonstrated the fighter aircraft Messerschmitt-109 and dive bomber the Junkers 87 was the best aircraft in its class. But they are slightly superior to those Soviet planes that were already in the projects, so in the Soviet experts had the impression that the German aviation industry, not much has moved forward from the Soviet. This is evidenced by the contemptuous remark Yakovlev about the FW-190, although he was subsequently consummate a piston fighter of the Second world war. This underestimation was the second reason. The third calls Mikhail Mukhin: “the High qualification of German workers were allowed to do without the pipeline. In Moscow thought about it and decided as long as we have no workers with such qualifications, from the conveyor to refuse”. The organization of production does not allow the USSR to build machines of such high quality as German.
But in General, as stressed by the historian Victor Anisimov, “Germany is not planned during the war to produce a full supply for economic agreements with the Soviet Union. The third Reich sought to obtain from Russia raw materials and food now and immediately, and its delivery to carry out ever subsequently.” This is graphically expressed in figures of trade turnover. On the Economic agreement of 11 February 1940, the USSR had to supply raw materials and food to Germany on suMMU and a half times greater than Germany was to supply industrial goods in the USSR. Baikov says, “different techniques to may 1941 was received from Germany to 33.7 million Reichsmarks”. It’s a tiny fraction even of those volumes, which were stipulated in the agreements between the two countries. It seems that the Third Reich really was in no hurry to fulfil their commitments to the country have outlined the following the object of their aggression.
however, one can hardly deny that the cooperation with Germany before the war allowed the Soviet Union to raise the level, primarily qualitative, of its military industry. How managed to do it – this question is still waiting for its impartial and detailed study. While the judge has only the crumbs of information about individual sectors of the Soviet-German cooperation, scattered here and there in memoirs and writings of historians.
© Russian Seven
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