History 19/02/20 Photo: “Plague riot” Ernest Listnership 1771: why Muscovites fled the city
since the XV century, Moscow had regularly faced with serious challenges. Devastating fires, the end of the reign of Ivan the terrible, the split of the Orthodox Church, almost turned into another confusion – not all troubles. Of special note is the two-year epidemic of plague, which claimed the lives of more than 100,000 people. It’s the last major outbreak of a terrible epidemic in Europe.
the Devastating fire of Moscow
the Wooden city burned regularly. In June 1445 writes “thousand-year chronicle of extraordinary phenomena” in the city there was not a single whole building, from the heat cracked the stone of the Kremlin wall and collapsed the fortress was destroyed, even the Royal Treasury.
the Last major fire occurred 1737. On the day of the Holy Trinity by accident lit up a place. However, the wind quickly carried the fire to the palaces of the rich merchant houses were burning, even the stone Kremlin. Burned 12,000 courtyards, markets and shops, the whole city centre was destroyed.
the Last major epidemic of the black death in Europe
the Plague appeared in Moscow suddenly. A reputable researcher diseases John T. Alexander, of Oxford University in his fundamental work “Bubonic Plague in Early Modern Russia” indicates the main reason the influx of trophies, soldiers and officers marching with the Russian-Turkish war.
the First patients in Moscow were indeed soldiers. Flash Nov 1770 year turned out to be localized. However, in March 1771, more than 150 people working on the yard of cloth caught and managed to spread the disease throughout the city.
this epidemic peaked in June-July 1771. Writes Gorelova L. E. in his work “the Plague in Moscow 1771-73 gg” – human bodies decomposed in the streets. There was a terrible stench, supported by the summer heat.
the isolation of the city and the closure of businesses has led to the tentnome rebellion. People had nothing to eat, and those few products were impossible to buy because of all the work you can get only the digging of graves and collecting bodies. describes the situation John T. Alexander.
the Empress Catherine dispatched Grigory Orlov to normalize the situation. Already in 1772, was able to run the main company, to establish urban life. The last cases were recorded in February 1773, but that was isolated cases.
the Outcome of people in the new grad Petrov
Prominent people, merchants, nobles and clergy flocked to newly built St. Petersburg. King developed all the time favorite child – grad named after him. To be in Moscow, meant to be in isolation from the latest news news and places decision-making at a thousand kilometers.
the outcome of the prominent and richest men in St. Petersburg has significantly slowed the development of Moscow in 1710-ies. New palaces were built in Petrov castle, there was transferred wealth was based new production. Moscow not only lost its status as capital, but the privileged of the city, the financial center of the country.
the Devastating outcome of Ivan the terrible
in Recent years, Ivan the terrible became the most tragic and terrible for the Russian state. In a modern textbook: “History of Russia. Edition 3” – period naionwide as poruka.
the Protracted Livonian war, the output from under the control of the oprichnina led to the depletion of the Treasury. Taxes were gathered little, production was in decline. The war demanded more and more people. Lean 1580 year led to widespread famine and epidemics.
the Split of the Orthodox Church
Appointed Metropolitan in 1649, Nikon starts a large-scale religious reform. Many of the code and interpretation are subsumed under one meaning. The Church books are not only translated, but also corrected. Amendments were made in the rituals and services. Such active changes many disliked. The movement of the believers gain strength.
In 1660, Nikon lost the post reform slowed down. However, across the strAnya flashed the religious clashes and riots. Solovetsky monastery and refused to recognize the new Church, which resulted in a real war and a bloody siege that claimed more than 800 lives.
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