Another 13/01/20 the Press service of OJSC “Uralkali”/TASS the names of the Russian cities may sink into the ground
In the Perm region near Berezniki, Solikamsk and Kungur you can see the funnel and the artificial lake, the shores of which come to residential areas. Emerged these formations are the result of geological miscalculations of experts involved in the development of the Verkhnekamskoe potash and magnesium salt. Today, there are over 10 large funnel-shaped sinkholes filled with water, the proliferation of which threatens the aforementioned cities full going underground.
From the boilers to the “BRIC”
When in 1430 the Novgorod merchants, brothers Kalinnikov, founded on the river Usolka, the first boilers of salt, they could hardly assume that later in these places, in addition to rock salt, and will be found large deposits of potassium salt. It happened in 1925. The discovery radically changed the life of a quiet corner in the middle Urals, where in the thirties appeared the first industrial enterprise for mining and processing this mineral. Actively used in agriculture as fertilizer potash salt in the upper reaches of the Kama river, lies at a depth of 150-700 m and discovered by geologists of the salt lens was of colossal dimensions: a thickness of 500 m, a width of 55 km and a length of 205 km.
Modern researchers claim that the cause of the Fukushima disaster in Perm region has become incorrect assessment of the geological conditions of the terrain, which, as it turned out, is an ancient pleodorina with loose rocks that are prone to cracking. The General Director of the Mining Institute of the Ural Federal district Alexander Baryakh believes that the reason for failures on mines “Uralkali” is the heterogeneity of the layers of rock mines on the lower level are the potassium salt, on average, are deposits of rock salt, and above them lies a hundred-meter layer of poresodes, full of fresh water. In his opinion, during the years of operation of the mine in the salt strata that protect the mine from water, may form cracks through which moisture has penetrated deep inside and began to “corrode” soluble rock.
the same view is shared by the Director of the Ural branch Mining Institute, Igor Sanfirov, who adds that if there has been water seepage into the salt strata to prevent failure it is impossible. In addition, he is Director of the Perm RTN Stanislav Yuzhanin, said that if the local soil had a protective layer of clay, it would have a chance to avoid this man-made disaster.
the Experts working at the Internet-portal “Meteotest” also believe that the reason for education failures is water, only that which falls as rain. According to their findings, in rain water contains a small amount carbonic acid, which is absorbed into the soil, rapidly destroys the integrity of the mineral deposits. In their opinion, enough in the region have passed the strongest downpours and in the cities of Perm Krai will appear new holes.
an Important role in the formation of the failures was the fact that in the Soviet time did not practice timely hydrosolate workings of waste production. Worked on mine for over 40 years, Mikhail Maltsev says that until the 90-ies of XX century in the Verkhnekamskoe Deposit no one did the problems of sealing and closing of excavations. Meanwhile, the bookmark of the developed space allows to reduce the deformation of the earth surface and to prevent large-scale failures and destruction of infrastructure.
the Geologist Alexey Kudryashov does not exclude that a possible reason for the formation of dips in the middle Urals are mining-induced earthquakes, which are often observed in this region.
human-Induced earthquakes, even small in siLes, could damage support billions of tons of rock mezcaleria jumpers mines, which, deformed, lost stability and fell, dragging the top layer.
meanwhile, the potash salts in this region occur only 250-300 m from the ground surface, and its underground parts voids a very small distance. However, the engineers who designed the Perm city, this fact did not bother, they were so sure of the strength released from ores that have designed some of the towns right over the mines.
the First call
the First Wake-up call, signaling the beginning of technogenic catastrophe, rang 1 January 1986, when the mine in the vicinity of Berezniki miners had a leak of brine. All attempts to fix the leak were futile, and the water continued to flow into the mine. And on the night of 27 July 1986 on this development, there was a collapse of the soil, accompanied with the emission and gas explosion. The failure parameters 150 to 70 m due to the relative remoteness from the city the people became known as the “distant relative”.
Failures in Berezniki
But after 21 years this man-made forest of the lake came the “Big brother”, which revealed the depths of the earth is directly in the city and had dimensions 450 330 m. In 2010, another failure, dubbed “the Kid”, was formed on the railroad tracks, putting an end to the work of the local station. In 2011 he formed the failure of the “Scarce” with the settings for 10 15 m, which after eight months has increased to the scale of 101 to 97 m In 2015 to celebrate carnival “opened the” failure “Pancake”, but in later years appeared one after another failures “Though I”, “Kitty II” and “Kitty III” that changed the appearance of the street Kotovskogo. However, the city authorities are optimistic and even look at the problem with humor – “to remove the negative background” associated with the formation of craters, the city Duma deputies voted for the installation of the monument in Berezniki Failure.
inRonchi is near the town of Solikamsk, the largest of which are “Scrooge”, discovered in 2014, and “summer resident”, located in the holiday village “Keys”. And although the authorities attempt to stop the formation of new failures, they themselves have become hostages of the mistakes made by engineers of the older generation.
in Addition to the unique ice caves in the city of Kungur has more than 500 failures, which, according to the press Secretary of the local administration, Yuri Cadet, are due to the fact that the settlement lies in the zones of sulphate and carbonate karst. To date, 39 residential houses are in the danger zone of alienation, where the failures can occur due to the lack of storm drainage and misuse of water-bearing communications.
© Russian Seven
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