The battle of Kagul: as 17 thousand Russian broke 150 thousand Janissaries

History 30/01/20 the Battle of Kagul: as 17 thousand Russian broke 150 thousand Janissaries

Turks and Crimean Tatars, who had considerable numerical superiority, but nevertheless utterly broken in Cahul Russian troops considered enemy soldiers were devils in human form: nothing but they could not explain its defeat.

the Best defense is a good offense

In the “Military encyclopedia” Ivan Sytin describes that momentous battle from the Bessarabian of the river Cahul, which occurred in July, 1770, was another victory of our army in the Russo-Turkish war, after the battles at the Pockmarked Graves and spotted Seals. The Supreme vizier of the Ottoman Empire Halil Pasha decided to take revenge and to defeat the troops of count Peter Rumyantsev, who was standing at the mouth of Cahul. Having crossed the Danube on 300 ships, the 150-strong army of Turks and Tatars (50 thousand infantry and 100 thousand horsemen) was going to strike at the Russian front, and to cut off and capture the transport of food (this task was assigned to 80-thousand Crimean Tatar connections).

Food in the Russian army remained for three days, and transport to him was 60 miles from the location of our parts. In numbers, the enemy had an almost tenfold advantage. However, Pyotr Rumyantsev as an experienced commander knew: defeat the Turks only possible thanks to the bold offensive maneuvers.

the Capture of Trajan shaft

a Russian historian Andrei Petrov, one of the first lucky enough to work with documents of count Peter Rumyantsev, who was in the archive of the General staff. In his book about the Russo-Turkish war, he described the strategic and tactical actions of the army under the command of this outstanding commander. Rumyantsev rassredotochit troops several battalions of infantry, regiments of heavy cavalry and hussars he left to secure messages. Advancing to offensive action in the area of the village of Gracani, the commander had at his disposal are powerful cannonstarting just 17 000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry.

After a reconnaissance made by the Turks partially moved to the village Vulcanesti, which is 7 miles below Greceni, on the left Bank districts. There, the enemy broke camp and began to build trenches. Rumyantsev, using the fact that the enemy army scattered, decided to preempt the Turks and Tatars, not to give them the opportunity to go to my rear. In the open countryside, the future field of battle, was not occupied by anyone Trajan’s shaft, which was built by the Romans under the Emperor Trajan – a convenient construction for the defense.

According to the order of Peter Rumyantsev, the case of the Swede Friedrich Bauer, in conjunction with the division of General Peter Plemyannikov had to attack the Turks from the left flank. The divisions of generals Peter Olitsa and James Bruce were ordered to storm the front and right flank of the enemy. But the corps of Prince Nikolai Repnin to go to the rear of the enemy. Russian cavalry was to move in the intervals between the infantry square. At dawn the troops of count Rumyantsev crossed Trajan’s shaft and lined up in order of battle. The Turks sent the cavalry, which in fights even managed to take Trajan’s shaft and out the rear of the Russian. But the rescue reserve General Olitsa knocked out of the dismounted cavalry of the enemy.

the Decisive maneuver Rumyantsev

Military historian of the XIX century Dmitry Maslovsky, describing the battle at Kagul, said that the victory in the battle, in which the Tatars did not even have time to participate, was secured thanks to the coordinated actions of Russian units on their tracks. Pyotr Rumyantsev at a critical moment was able to mobilize all forces for the final throw.

the Enemy fortifications of the Russian army reached by 8 am and were met with heavy rifle and artillery fire. Promotion was slow. The vizier, seeing that neither cavalry nor artillery did not stop the Russian, threw on the offensive then “special forces” – the Janissaries in the amount of up to 10 000 people. The attacking Janissaries overran the caret Plemyannikov and made a great confusion in Olitsa the caret.

it is a critical mthe date you place your order of battle, and Pyotr Rumyantsev, jumped towards the fleeing Marines Plemyannikov, stopped them, turning to the counter. Inspired by the personal example of the commander, the soldiers lined up in a new caret and went into battle. Meanwhile, the Grenadier regiment of the division Olitsa from the front to the bayonet together with the Janissaries, the Russian cavalry attacked from the flank, and the Jaeger battalion baura went to the rear of the Turks. Janissaries fled. Historians agree that if Turkish Janissaries then supported the infantry, the battle likely would have ended in defeat for the Russian army.

the Russian went up to the Turkish fortifications and overcoming the heavy fire of the enemy, began to occupy the enemy positions. The first was the case of baura, behind him came the division of the Bruce and Olitsa, and reiterated in the order of battle division Plemyannikov. The case of Prince Repnin, meanwhile, went to the rear of the Turkish camp.

the Turks, fearing encirclement, and fled. Tatars and not Russians who came in the rear, retreated to Ackerman. The infantry drove the Turks 4 miles, and then they were pursued by the Russian cavalry.

as trophies of our troops went to 140 guns, all the baggage, a large number of cattle. According to rough estimates, in the battle of Kagul the Turks lost 20,000 men and the Russians – 900. Historians have noted that the reason for the defeat of the Turks was the fragmentation, the incoherence of their actions, while Pyotr Rumyantsev properly distributed to the troops and promptly set before them the only true at the moment of the task.

Nicholas Syromyatnikov

© Russian Seven

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