That proposed by Japan in 1945 to the Soviet Union did not attack her

History 08/01/20 That proposed by Japan in 1945 to the Soviet Union did not attack it.

a Fundamental decision about the Soviet Union declared war on Japan no later than three months after victory over Germany was advised by Stalin to the allies at the Tehran conference in November 1943. In February 1945 at the next meeting of the “Big Three” in Yalta this promise was formalized in concrete agreements.

Japan’s efforts to appease the Soviet Union and prevent its entry into the war

of Course, the Japanese leaders did not know anything specific about these arrangements. In relations between Japan and the Soviet Union formally maintained the neutrality Pact, signed in Moscow on 13 April 1941. But many of the signs and the overall situation it was possible to guess that after the defeat of Germany, the Soviet Union will change its neutral stance in relation to Japan and will speak against it as a United front with the United States and Britain.

to prevent such adverse developments, Japan in 1944 – early 1945 tried several times to initiate negotiations with the Soviet Union, promising a war without significant concessions in the far East. In September 1944, the Minister of foreign Affairs of Japan Shigemitsu formulated in the instructions to Ambassador Sato a list of these concessions. They included the transfer to the Soviet Union southern Sakhalin and the Northern Kuril Islands, North Manchurian railway, permit the passage of Soviet vessels through the Tsugaru Strait (between Honshu and Hokkaido) and on fishing in Japanese waters, the recognition of the sphere of Soviet interests in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia.

However, the people’s Commissar of foreign Affairs Molotov, hoping that as a result of the war, the USSR will achieve more artfully walked away from negotiations, failing from time to time to assure the Japanese Ambassador that the Soviet Union achieves nothing and no hostile actions will not undertake.

formally notteruletet

In April 1945, was to expire last term, when the Soviet Union or Japan could declare the termination of the Pact on neutrality concluded on five years. April 5, 1945, Molotov had presented to Ambassador Sato’s denunciation of the Soviet Union of that Covenant. In the language of diplomatic relations, this meant that the Covenant will not be renewed but will remain valid for the entire period for which he was imprisoned, i.e. until April 25, 1946.

Lose the strength of the Treaty of neutrality could, if the USSR announced its cancellation. But in order not to sow in the Japanese unnecessary troubles, write to Alexey Kirichenko and Kirill Cherevko in the book “the Russo-Japanese war: declassified files”, Molotov was limited only to a denunciation of the Pact. Moreover, Molotov did not object in principle to the proposal Sato to discuss later the possibility of renewing the Treaty of neutrality, although he did not give any promises.

Thus, from the point of view of Japan, supported by the explanations of the Soviet side, between Japan and the Soviet Union until the formal Declaration of war by the Soviet Union on 8 August 1945, acted neutrality Pact.

“Inadequate response”?

Shortly after the surrender of Germany, may 14, 1945 the Supreme Imperial Council of Japan discussed the necessary measures to prevent a Soviet attack. In the list of concessions it was recommended to include the transfer of Soviet Central part of the Kurils to the island of Urup, inclusive, and to lease the liaotung Peninsula with the fortress of Port Arthur and the city of the future.

3 Jun 1945 began regular meetings especially of the Commissioner of ex-Prime Minister Hirota with the Soviet Ambassador in Japan Yakov Malik. To them the Japanese side has expanded the list of concessions, including the neutralization of Manchuria (that is, the withdrawal of Japanese troops). The Soviets pulled the answer to the Potsdam conference the “Big Three”.

on 26 July 1945, during the Potsdam conference the US and Britain issued a joint Declaration demanding the unconditional surrender of Japan. USSR announced his accession. Japan refused to accept it and how to respond to it. This silence gave the USSR the formal pretext for declaring war on Japan on August 8. From the point of view of many Japanese historians that this omission allegedly gave the Soviet Union such rights, as the Soviet Union did not warn about such a response in his statement.

“Without declaring war”?

on 8 August 1945 at 17 o’clock Moscow time (in Tokyo was 23 hours) Ambassador Sato was called Molotov. He handed him the Memorandum that with 0 hours Tokyo time on August 9, the Soviet Union will be at war with Japan. The message to Sato in Tokyo on the beginning of hostilities, had less than a hour. Of course, to parts of the Japanese army stationed on the border with the Soviet Union, warning about the beginning of the war could not have managed. The first blow of the Soviet forces fell upon the unsuspecting Kwantung army.

In the morning, i.e. before the receipt of the notification of the beginning of the war, Soviet aircraft bombed towns in North-Eastern China, which was part of the Japanese created in 1932 the puppet state of the Empire of Manchukuo: Shenyang, Harbin, Changchun, Jilin.

In Harbin housed the General Consulate of the USSR in Manchukuo. His staff, too, for reasons of secrecy, had not received advance notice of the beginning of the war, otherwise their behaviour could force the Japanese get suspicious. And while the Soviet planes were not sent to the legation quarter, but given the night bombing could happen.

the Incident Manchukuo

the Soviet Union has ignored the existence of the state of Manchukuo, which was officially recognized in 1935 and with whom he had diplomatic relations. In addition to Harbin, the Consulate of the USSR were placed in three Manchurian cities. Was in Moscow the Consulate General of Manchukuo.

the Soviet Union has not attended any statement about the rupture of diplomatic relations with Manchukuo, nor a Declaration of war. This is a subject of international law as it did not exist. This position is consistent with the decisions of the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, according to which the territory of Manchukuo was considered a Japanese-occupied Chinese territory and, after the surrender of Japan, was to be returned to China.

Persons who served in the administration of Manchukuo, were considered prisoners of war (if Japanese) or collaborators (if you were Chinese). In the second case they were transferred to the court of the Chinese side. Did so and captured by Soviet paratroopers “Emperor of Manchukuo” (aka until 1912 was the last Emperor of China) PU I. However, the Chinese Communists treated him humanely after a 10-year “re-education” in prison, he was released and allowed to peacefully end his days as a humble gardener.

In Japan today there are two competing “government of Manchukuo in exile”, and they hand out, wishing to “citizenship” of this “state”.

Yaroslav Butakov

© Russian Seven

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