History 07/01/20 wikipedia.ogdem first flight to the angered Queen
the First female cosmonaut corps was formed in March 1962. It was assumed that with proper training women can do this job better than men. However, after the first trip into space was disbanded. What is the reason?
Contestants in the first women’s squad were thousands. Of them chose only five: Valentina Ponomareva, Irina Solovyova, Valentina Tereshkova, Tatyana Kuznetsova and Jeanne Erkin. It was simple, nothing stood out for girls. Someone who worked as a teacher, Tereshkova worked as a weaver.
In preparation for the flight into space the girls had to endure severe physical and psychological tests. For example, in the flight suit had to be in the room with a temperature of plus 70 and humidity around 30%. Stress body temperature was risen to 130 beats per minute pulse quickened.
However all the girls performed well, passed the test and was submitted to the General designer Sergei Korolyov. Had to resolve: who goes? Your choice designer stopped by 26-year-old Valentina Tereshkova. That she was to become the first woman in space.
the carrier Rocket was launched from Baikonur cosmodrome on 16 June 1963. Tereshkova was in the tiny cockpit of spaceship “Vostok-6”. Themselves designers because of the extreme tightness called his creation a tin can. The first female astronaut had to spend three days.
Before Tereshkova’s task was, first, to study the effect of outer space on the female body. Second, to draw conclusions about the improvements of a control system of the ships of the “East”. Thirdly, Tereshkova was to survey the lunar and terrestrial surfaces.
However, the flight was not quite as planned. Tereshkova had to fight with the so-called space adaptation syndrome, which is characterized by such symptoms as dizziness, nausea, headache.
According to the memoirs of General Nikolai Kamanin, responsible for the preparation of cosmonauts, Tereshkova during the last session did not respond to calls from the Ground. In addition, it did not comply with the manual orientation of the spacecraft by means of a system of manual control.
Tereshkova complained of overcrowding, crushing the helmet, nausea, and physical discomfort. Despite the difficult conditions, she was able to still withstand 48 revolutions of the “East” around the Earth. Back the cosmonaut returned to the descent module on June 19. Landing has passed safely.
According to Nikolai Kamanin, he spoke with Tereshkova in space, several times. Felt serious fatigue, though she is to admit it didn’t. Shortly before landing she had to Wake up. Tereshkova said that Orient the vehicle’s pitch is not for her, but assured that will do the job.
it was Later revealed that the trajectory of the “Vostok-6” was originally programmed incorrectly. Revised data, Tereshkova admitted later, she received only the second day of the mission. After the flight Korolev asked her to she didn’t tell anyone about the error, almost became fatal.
However, responsible for medical services in the Soviet space program Professor Vladimir Yazdovsky, commenting on the poor health of Tereshkova, noted that women carry the load space than men, but only for 14-18-day months. Start the “Vostok-6” and his flight because of delays at the Baikonur happened at precisely that time.
within a few days of the flight Tereshkova for her at the space center have worried enough. And Queens among his subordinates allegedly said that when there are more “no women in space will not.”
At that time, planned new female flight crew tolKo already for 15 days. However, the preparation was carried out slowly. In 1966, Korolev died, and three years later set in the women’s team was closed, and she disbanded.
As later recalled by a member of the first team Jeanne Yerkin, they wrote a letter to the Central Committee of the Communist party, where the answer came: to disband immediately. According to her, upstairs, after the removal of N. Khrushchev we just forgot about them.
the Second flight of a woman cosmonaut took place 19 years later after the first one. In 1982, the test pilot Svetlana Savitskaya spent in the space of seven days.
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