History 02/02/20 state of emergency on the submarine M-351: how Soviet sailors rescued the drowned submarine
the Ability to survive a crash on a submarine is comparable with the chance to survive during the crash in the air. As a rule, perish all those who at this moment is inside. If the land to the person more favorable, the air and the depths of the sea refused to recognize him as master. But there is a significant difference. Any crash immediately becomes the property of the media, especially if we are talking about civil aircraft. The whole world suddenly flies photos of the remnants of the fuselage and Luggage scattered in a radius of several kilometers. But the movement of submarines is highly classified, because stealth is the biggest advantage of this ship. Often the output of a submarine at sea is known only when leaks to the press information related emergency. So that locations of submarine tragedies protects not only the calm sea surface, but the secrecy.
the Project of submarine was developed by Leonardo da Vinci, but for the first time in combat, the submarine was used during the war of the American colonies for independence. Then with its help, the Americans made an unsuccessful attempt to blow up a British battleship. Full-scale sea battle began during the First world war, when the oceans were about 600 submarines. But despite the fact that the construction of submarines every year moderniziriruyutsya, no wonder they earned the nickname “steel coffins”. In the entire history of the submarine fleet, there have been about two hundred emergencies, contingencies and large-scale disasters. All familiar with the tragic fate of the Russian submarine “Kursk”, and those who follow the news, remember on the Argentinian submarine “San Juan” and Indian “Sindhurakshak”.
However, few people know that in 1957 this sad list almost added another oneOh tragedy. 22 Aug Soviet submarine black sea fleet M-351 almost vertically pierced in the viscous soil at a depth of 83 meters. Thanks to the efforts and perseverance of the crew, as well as the precise organization of rescue operations, all divers were rescued, making this case unique in the history of the submarine fleet.
“was a clear Sunny day”
the Submarine M-351, three years earlier, descended from the conveyor in Leningrad, was preparing for exercises in the Black sea. Commanded the ship captain 3rd rank Rostislav Belozerov. The crew of the submarine was supposed to practice emergency dive, and he has three times successfully coped with this task. During the fourth dive to a predetermined depth of 7 metres with the vessel began to happen that something was wrong. The submarine ceased to obey the crew and gave a sharp trim by the stern, and all attempts to make an emergency ascent to anything did not lead. In a few minutes the submarine began to sink and the stern to dig in the sticky soil of the seabed. Detailed description of the events of those August days we find in “Notes on memory” S. S. Kolesnikov, the assistant to the commander of the submarine M-351.
appears later, were to blame for the flawed design of the mine air supply to the diesel engines, which delayed shut when submerged. In the 6th compartment was quickly supplied with water, which led to a partial flooding of the submarine. From the 6th compartment water had leaked into the 7th and got to the electrical panel caused the fire. In compartment three of the sailor and electrician immediately began the salvation of the ship. With considerable effort they were able to shut down the Board and thus ensure operation of the vessel in the course of the next few days. Nevertheless, the submarine has managed to penetrate more than 40 tons of sea water.
the Rescue of drowning — the handiwork of drowning. The submariners knew this cruel rule and harmoniously operated, knowing that assistance from the Bank may not come. Releasing to the surface the distress beacon, they beganand the struggle for survival. After the main pump failed, it was decided to carry water through all the possible containers in the 1st compartment where the pump worked normally. The sailors lined up and began to draw water improvised means. In the course went not only buckets, but even a tin can. All was complicated by the position of the submarine, Volkovskaya in the bottom almost at an angle of 45 degrees. Water had to be lifted to a height of nearly 50 meters and for the first day, the sailors moved more than 10 tons of gallons of water.
However, the tangible result is never brought. Moreover, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air greatly increased, there was a shortage of oxygen, and the temperature inside the vessel is almost equal to the temperature of the water in the cold (about 7 degrees). Individual life-saving equipment on the submarine was not, therefore, the sailors gradually began to lose presence of mind. It is worth noting the command of the submarine: the day of salvation officers maintained a strict discipline, organized the release of combat leaflets and entry submariners on leave.
the Miraculous rescue
On the shore of the disappearance of the submarine is not immediately noticed, because the connection was lost before the captain managed to inform about the accident. Therefore, the rescue operation began only a day later. On top of that at this time the sea broke out the storm. Marshal Zhukov, upon learning of the tragedy, took the case under his personal control, threatening Tribunal of the Russian black sea fleet commander. The threat apparently worked, because the next day was carried out the oxygen supply to the submarine and received sets of warm clothes and food, as well as restored telephone service. No need to say that all this is instilled in the hearts of the sailors had lost all hope.
the First attempt to pull the submarine by a cable failed, the cable broke, however, the trim of the vessel was considerably reduced, allowing divers to pump out the remaining compartments of the water. The second attempt to lift the boat hid themselves more risks: in case of failure, the ship could unpredictably change the position. However, on the night of 26 August, the rescuers hooked the three submarine cables and began again to rescue her from a sea captivity. Slowly but surely the boat began to succumb, and to the shouts of the crew and the roar of bleed air, the submarine had come to the surface. This happened in 2 hours and 30 minutes. Sailors more than three days spent in the exhausting struggle with the elements and their own fear. And black southern night seemed lighter then many of the Sunny day.
But the story is not over. According to A. S. Nikolaev in the article “Three days and a half on the bottom of the sea”, in the end, the awards were awarded only the divers involved in the rescue operation, a total of about 10 people. The heroic crew of the submarine orders and medals bypassed. The country’s leadership considered their perpetrators who are unworthy of any government insignia.
© Russian Seven
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