History 12/01/20 How Stalin motivated the red army to fight
Of all orders of the great Patriotic war to a wide audience the most famous one, the number 227 of July 28, 1942. The people called him: “not one step back!”. The emergence of such a document is clear. After the first won victories near Moscow strategic offensive on all fronts not only did not work, but the Red Army began to retreat, suffering enormous losses. In this situation, any military leadership, saving the situation, will go to repressive measures, albeit with different degrees of hardness and cruelty.
In our historiography the order number 227 is provided so that it may be the impression that it was something out of the ordinary. But we should not forget that in 1941 the situation was even more severe. In the first weeks were lost millions of soldiers of the army personnel, thousands of aircraft, tanks and other weapons captured were not only ordinary, but also the generals. The Wehrmacht troops were advancing irresistibly, and all attempts to stop them to anything did not lead. It is not surprising that attempts to change the situation led to the holding of the toughest measures at all levels, from privates to senior officers.
In the first months of the war, due to the fact that the environment got not only the red Army, but the entire compound, there were many different instances of the heroic conduct of senior officers. So, the Deputy commander of the Western front, Lieutenant-General Boldin, to organize were surrounded portion, out of the encirclement with fighting. The Commissioner of the 8th mechanized corps, brigade Commissar Popel with a group of soldiers passed on the German rears about 650 km and escaped to his own.
But there were other examples. Once in the environment, surrendered to the commander of the 28th army, Lieutenant General Katchalov, and the commander of the 12 th army, Lieutenant-General Ponedelin. Lower Urooutside were numerous, and at times numerous cases of cowardice officers, attempts to hide in the rear and much more.
the Consequence of this was the emergence of Bids order No. 270 of 16 August 1941. It listed numerous examples, and were instructed to commanders at all levels in the manifestation of cowardice, of desertion, of attempts to surrender, shot on the spot. Family of commanders was subject to arrest.
This applies not only to commanders but to all soldiers. In the case of the environment they were ordered to fight, inflicting maximum damage to the enemy and not to surrender. In the case of the surrender of individual soldiers and the parts to be destroyed. That is, surrendered the red army had to open fire on defeat. The family surrendered the red army was deprived of the state allowances for any help.
on the one hand, the cruelty of such measures can be justified and understood. Especially if you look at it through the eyes of those who fight, and the neighbors raise their hands and give up. On the other hand, it is scary to think what it led to arbitrariness on the part of commanders and Commissars, in fact, received the right to shoot on the spot any.
as a result I had to take action: October 4, 1941 came the order of people’s Commissar of defense No. 0391 “About the facts of substitution of the educational work of repression”. In the preamble to the order the facts of flagrant violations, when commanders shot their subordinates on false pretexts, and even without any reason. In the order it was required of workers at all levels to bring in the first place explanatory work among the red army, considering repression as the extreme measure.
However, in the same order stated that the soldiers need to explain the necessity of conducting the hardest fight against cowards, provocateurs and deserters. Was implacable against those who organized lynchings and allowed themselves to assault and abuse.
With the promotion fared poorly, what canabout to be sent to troops December 7, 1941 a Directive from the chief of Main political administration of the red army № 268 “On the elimination of neglect in oral propaganda and agitation”. It was found that agitation is very bad and illiterate.
But we should not think that the whole of 1941 the leadership of the country only used some repression. About the promotion is also not forgotten.
on 20 November issued a decree of the State Defense Committee № 929. It was stated about reduction of terms of assignment of military ranks in the army. For senior officers the period is halved, and for the younger General was reduced to a few months. Lieutenant to the next rank had to serve only two months, and a Colonel five. In case of injury or awarding orders to these terms has halved. On the one hand, it has improved the quality of officers. And with another — in the war two months still have to live and not all lieutenants have succeeded.
as for the orders, then in 1941 they were awarded very sparingly. High command rarely, younger commanders and soldiers much more often.
enlisted personnel with less than commanders, was interested in military ranks, medals and awards. For them more important was the issue of vodka entered in the army on August 22, 1941, the GKO Decree No. 562.
More important than the advocacy of political officers, it was considered timely to ensure the army warm clothes, tobacco, vodka. In disorders those responsible for ensuring that troops were punished very harshly, which is also a positive impact on staff. The soldiers saw that the repression spread to the commanders that do not provide them with all the necessary (and sometimes just food), and it worked better than any propaganda.
© Russian Seven
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