History 21/02/20 Scarlet Yar: which Russian Tsar destroyed the first state Cossacks
Scarlet ravine in the old days was called a vast area along the river Khoper – the largest left tributary of the don, and along the Crow river, the largest right tributary of the Khoper. It is now a part of the territory of the Voronezh, Volgograd, Saratov and Tambov regions.
the origin of the Scarlet ravine
Lived on the Hopper population for the first time called “Cossacks” in one of the letters of the second half of the XV century. However, a special Autonomous state entity existed here at least a century earlier. Already in 1340-ies and in the beginning of 1350-ies of the Moscow Metropolitan Feognost sent a letter “to Baskakov, and to the centurion and to the Pope and to all Christians of Scarlet Yara”. Therefore, this political community was to be even earlier. Novgorod chronicle of the XIV century mentions on the Khoper river town Urupes – current Uryupinsk. Sources of knowledge about the existence of the Scarlet Yar other cities, towns and Orthodox monasteries.
From the letters it is evident that the population of the Scarlet ravine was Orthodox and politically subordinate to the Golden Horde. On the latter indicates the presence of Baskakov. In the Church against the Golden Horde was part of the diocese of the Bishop of Sarai and Polonskogo appointed a Russian Metropolitan. The fact of the arrival of letters was caused by a dispute about ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Scarlet ravine – it was constantly claimed by the Bishop of Ryazan.
We do not discuss here the more General and complex issue of ethnic origin of the Cossacks. Is it possible to allow more than anywhere else, the participation of Finno-Ugric peoples of Meshchera and Mordvins in this particular case, the folding of the Cossacks on the Khopyor. The predominant elements were obviously Slavic and Turkic.
There is another interesting detail. Hopersky Cossacks often called “Chigi”. Many researchers see this as a distorted “jihand”. So in the early middle Ages was called Abkhazians. I have an interesting parallel. The Abkhazians are related to the Circassians, who, apparently, played a significant role in the formation of the Cossacks in General. No wonder another ancient name of the Circassians was “kasogi”, where some researchers produce self-Cossacks. And the Dnieper Cossacks for a long time were called Cherkasy. And not from Cigov if the name of the Cossack town of Chyhyryn in Ukraine? In General, there is a lot of room for hypotheses and researches of ethnogenesis.
the Liberty Scarlet Yar
the Mention in the Charter of the Metropolitan Theognost Sotnikov is interpreted as the existence in Scarlet Yar traditional Cossack election management. However, the omission of the chieftains in the presence of Baskakov allows you to think that Cossack self-government here was only at the grassroots level and at higher management was Horde baskaks.
However, there are other explanations. Elected heads of the Cossacks Scarlet Yara could be called baskaks in Tatar style. As it is not excluded, on the contrary, the fact that centurions, like Baskakov, could be assigned to Horde administration. It is also possible that the local political system were not stable, but has undergone significant changes over the centuries. The assumption of Cossack self-government in Scarlet Yar XIV-XV centuries based on what we know about the later organization of the Cossacks, according to sources of the XVI-XVII centuries.
whatever it was, the residents of the Scarlet ravine (no later than the middle of the XV century, which became, as we have seen, be referred to the Cossacks) were direct vassals of the Golden Horde, although their land constantly claims the Grand Dukes of Ryazan, and from the end of XV century Moscow. We do not know which side was attended by the Cossacks of the Scarlet ravine in the epochal clashes of Dmitry Donskoy and other Russian princes with the Golden Horde. But, apparently, hovercam was beneficial to keep the Tatar side.
Slabeva the Golden Horde gave the Scarlet Yar increasingly independent and growing Russiane Principality increasingly encroached on it. This is evidenced by the following event.
Relocation to Terek
Grebensky Cossacks on the Terek, mentioned in the novel by Leo Tolstoy’s “the Cossacks”, have their origin, as is proved by historian Alexander Sennikov from Cossacks Scarlet Yar. Greben Cossacks lived there at least from the XVI century. As it now emerges, they appeared there at the end of the XV century. Their relocation was caused by the fall of the Golden Horde and the beginning of the expansion of the Muscovite state.
From a single source, telling him about resettlement and became known in the late nineteenth century, a major role in it played and Vyatka Novgorod ushkuyniki. In 1478 the Grand Prince of Moscow Ivan III annexed to the state of Novgorod. The accession was accompanied by mass deportations of the population of the former Republic. Many Novgorodians, who did not want to come to terms with the new order, went to Rob and Cossacks. In 1489 the governors of Moscow invaded and destroyed the last freestyle urban communities in Northern Russia – Vyatka. The inhabitants of the region also left the masses on the availability of land.
But in 1480 the Golden Horde was defeated by the Crimeans and then was in agony. Next to the Scarlet ravine in those same years, established Moscow, attaching itself to specific Yelets Principality, previously part of the former addicted to Ryazan. Koperty like the old, how and, especially, newcomers, increasingly felt the threat of the Moscow autocracy. In these circumstances, a considerable part of the Cossacks Scarlet Yara has decided to leave the place, where there’s a will.
the end of the Scarlet ravine
But part of the Cossacks remained in the Hopper and for a long time retained independence. In 1549 the Nogai Murza Yusuf complained to the Moscow Tsar Ivan IV on looting merchants, Cossacks, headed by a certain Sarah Ismanam somewhere in the region of Voronezh, near the Scarlet ravine. In subsequent hopersky Cossacks merges with the don still retains its own characteristics. Khoperskaya shelf stand withstav Cossack units.
Scarlet Yar Cossacks took an active part in the uprisings of the don atamans Stepan Razin (1670-1671) and Kondrat Bulavin (1707-1708). During the last army of Peter I completely destroyed all the old freedoms the troops of the don. Scarlet Yar was ravaged by the Imperial troops to the ground, its center pristanskaya town (now in the city of Novokhopyorsk) wiped off the face of the earth.
At the end of the XVIII century, Catherine II decided to move joperaw in the North Caucasus and to include in the composition of the Kuban troops. In response, 1792-1794 part hopersky Cossacks rebelled under the command of captain Ivan Rubtsov (scoring a whip to death after his capture). It was the last reminder of past liberties Scarlet Yar.
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