History 08/01/20 Partisan of Hitler: how he fought against the German women red Army
One of the least known pages of the history of the Second world war and post-war Europe – the activities prepared by the Nazis in the last months of the Third Reich partisans and saboteurs. They were United in the organisation “Werwolf” (Werewolf).
the Establishment and objectives of “Werewolf”
In September 1944, when troops of the USSR and its Western allies entered Germany, the Nazi leadership set the task to create an extensive network of guerrilla underground in the case of the occupation of Germany. At the head of the organization was delivered to SS-obergruppenführer Hans-Adolf Prutzmann. The initial task of Werewolf, yet the war went on, were acts of sabotage behind the front line. The vervolfovtsev left in the occupied territory, where they made the mining, explosions, attacks with weapons on enemy soldiers.
Because almost all unfit for military service German men had already been drafted into the Wehrmacht, the personnel resource of “Werewolf” were the elderly over 60 years of age and adolescents under 16 years of age and women. On this soil there was a fundamental disagreement between Prutzmann Nazi and “father of sabotage” Otto Skorzeny. Skorzeny offered to groups “Werwolf” was composed of tried soldiers, experienced in the technique of operations. Thus, they could inflict considerable damage. However, the Reichsfuhrer SS, Himmler chose the mass at the expense of quality.
it is Therefore not surprising that the first acts of sabotage “Werewolf” had serious success. Though they caused troubles to the Soviet and Western troops, but have a significant impact on the course of military action could not. Inexperienced saboteurs were caught quickly by security services of the Soviet and allied armies. The violence with them was short, regardless of gender and age.
Women in the “Werewolf”
the Lack of staff has led to extensive involvement in the Werewolf women. In March 1945, “Bureau of Prutzman” was formed a special Department of women’s participation in the guerrilla movement. It was headed by a certain Frau Majs. The personnel database for the division served mainly the “League of German girls”, which necessarily consisted of girls from 14 to 18 years.
the Main purpose of women was intelligence. In the occupied territories women”werewolves” were supposed to try to get into the occupation administration in the position of service staff, secretaries, etc. They were intended to deliver information to groups “Werwolf”, the role of communication, etc.
Used women for combat duties. The Germans who received positions in the occupation administration, to be eliminated as traitors to the Reich and the Fuhrer. One of the first Germans who were handed down death sentence in absentia, was appointed by the Americans, the mayor of Aachen, Franz Oppenhoff. Scout ILSA was thrown out with a parachute behind the front line, to establish the exact place of residence and the scheme of movement Oppenhof. On 25 March 1945 he was shot by SS commandos.
it is Impossible to establish the exact number of women involved in the “Werewolf” to the end of the war, and the General membership of this organization. I suppose that there could be a few thousand. After the suicide of Hitler, his successor Karl Doenitz officially dissolved the “Werewolf” may 5, 1945. But many vervolfovtsev not obeyed the order.
It would be wrong to assume all members of the “Werewolf” ideologically loyal to the Nazis. Staff shortages encouraged the Nazi leaders on the ground to match the guerrilla group, even of the natives of other countries who find themselves in Germany. Of course, these “fighters” tried to carry out combat orders, and surrender at the first opportunity. A case where a captured Soviet troops surrendered to a detachment of nearly a hundred werewolves, among whom were poles, Romanians, Italians, as well as two womenus from the Soviet Union. However, one of them was soon shot dead “while trying to escape”.
no doubt, however, that those who after the surrender of Germany continued terrorist and subversive acts against the troops of the winners, was a fanatical national socialists. But there was a little.
the Fight with Werewolf
the activities of the “Werewolf” after the war, has not acquired large scale. This was facilitated by three circumstances. First, the Germans were no longer to hope for. As any guerrilla movement operates successfully only if there is an external front. Secondly, densely populated country, densely occupied by hostile troops, presented little chance for a successful guerrilla struggle. Thirdly, the war was undermined by the demographic potential of the Germans.
But one should not underestimate the and intelligence activities. In the Soviet zone of occupation were regularly conducted raids and sweeps, during which identified a potential Nazi underground. Detained members of the Nazi party and escaped captivity, the soldiers of the Wehrmacht. Only in the first eight months of 1947 the USSR had deported nearly 100 thousand prisoners of the Germans, and only a few hundred thousand.
the Number of those arrested in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany was even greater. For their contents, the Soviet administration of the widely used former Nazi “death camps”: Buchenwald, Dachau, Sachsenhausen, etc. the Vast majority of the detainees for involvement in acts of terror and sabotage against the Soviet troops and administration in absentia were sentenced to imprisonment from 15 to 25 years.
the NKVD was trying to use its agents in Nazi underground. The effectiveness of their work increased steadily. So, in may of 1945, agents of the NKVD, it was revealed more than 8 thousand civilian Germans suspected of having links with Werewolf, but the ones sent to the camps less than a thousand, and the rest released. In June was just arrested 973 people, but vervolfovtsev among them were more than half.
Despite these events, and perhaps because of them, the activity of “Werewolf” in East Germany was less intense than in the West but also in the territories of the Reich, which after the war went to Poland and Czechoslovakia and where he carried out the deportation of German civilians. In these States, despite the change of the Communist regimes democratic, is still not disclosed details of special operations to clean up the territory from the German population and the Nazi underground.
there is No published information on the disclosure of the Soviet counterintelligence large underground networks “Werewolf”. There is a suspicion that the majority of the members of this organization have not been exposed for the reason that simply did not take part in acts of violence after the surrender of Germany. This is especially true of women. Although the women who participated in sabotage actions, the attitude was exactly the same as men.
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