Khanty and Mansi: the mystery of the origin of these peoples

Another 27/01/20 Khanty and Mansi: the mystery of the origin of these peoples

At first glance, these kindred peoples are difficult to distinguish: both the Khanty and the Mansi belong to the Ural race, and I believe the indigenous peoples of the ancient Urals.
Similar Ob Ugric and externally: they have a low height about 155-160 cm, slender build, pronounced Mongoloid features (in women they are more pronounced than in males, flattened nasal bridge noses with a raised tip, black hair, black, brown or green eyes, wide mouth with narrow lips and chin, which is or acts as a medium or “running away.”
But still they are two different people.

the Resettlement and occupation

Mansi (Voguls) previously lived on the Western slopes of the Ural mountains, but since the XI century was pushed out first, Komi, and then the Russians, and were forced to retreat to St. Urals. The main occupation of the Voguls were and still are hunting, fishing, and (at sedentary) cattle. The main housing Muncie – hut covered with bark or skins in winter – log house with an earthen roof, heated hearth – the hearth, composed of poles, covered with clay.
Khanty have always lived East of the Ural mountains, settled in the valleys of the rivers Irtysh Vasyugan Ob, Konda. Engaged in hunting, fishing, reindeer husbandry, which might be adopted in their neighbours, the Nenets. Lived in tents, but places of permanent hunting or fishing put a wooden hut or made dugouts and huts that covered the top with turf and earth.

the Origin of

And the Khanty and Mansi belong to the descendants of the ancient and mysterious Ugric peoples, who came to the Urals from the South of the Kazakh steppes and forest-steppes of Western Siberia.
Anthropologists believe that Muncie was formed in the first Millennium by mixing Ugric peoples of the indigenous tribes of the Ural – as evidenced by the combination of the Mansi culture customs of the steppe and taiga-dwellers. People self – Mansi means “man” and comes from praporshikovo sloVA mańćɜ, which means “man”.
Scientists V. G. Moiseev, and C. de La Fuente in the article “Population history of the indigenous population of Siberia” say that anthropologically and culturally Mansi is similar to the Selkup (Ostyak-Samoyeds) living in the neighborhood, and the Sami–the Lapps, living in the North of the European part of Russia, and genetically similar groups of Yukagirs, living in Chukotka.
History of the tribes of the Khanty also has about a thousand years. This nation was formed from the mixing of alien Ugric peoples and aboriginal tribes. Samoyeds: the Nganasans, Nenets, Selkups and Khanty were called “strangers” – “argan”. Khanty called themselves – of chance that meant people. Genetics see the relationship of the Khanty Uralic peoples and with the peoples of the Altai mountains and Central Asia.
But as a people of Khanty formed of individual tribes only in Soviet Russia.

Organization

the People of Muncie is divided into two social groups – fratrie. One is called a Long second – Most; groups have cultural differences. The group is Then dominated by the traditions hunters and fishermen of the Urals, a totem of the group believe the bear, and in the group Mos is dominated by the traditions of the steppe, its members believe their ancestor the ancestor Kaltas. Brides Mansi always took from another group.
the Social organization of Muncie was difficult – they had their own princes, who owned the warriors, their magistrates. Mansi written language exists since 1931 – based on the Latin alphabet, and since 1937 on the basis of the Cyrillic alphabet.
Khanty are more fragmented ethnically, they have at least 13 dialects, which complicated the creation of writing. For example, they have priirtyshskiy, Obdorsk, Ob, Surgut, Vakh-Vasyugan, shuryshkarskiy adverbs. Writing for some of the dialects was created only in 1950-ies.
Anthropologists distinguish three major groups of Khanty: Eastern, Northern and southern, which for the most part mixed up in the Russian and Tatar population of the Irtysh. Eastern Khanty have palaeoslberian the nature of culture and the least the presence in their blood Ugric component. And South have a number of features of the steppe is the cult of the horse and hitching post, dancing with swords.

Religion

he And the other peoples spiritualize nature and believe in reincarnation of people. Their main gods are considered to be the Supreme God Numei-Torum, his son, Polum-Torum, who runs the animal world, the World of susne-hum, the warden of the human world, Kaltash-ekva is the goddess of the earth and Hotel-ekva is the goddess of the sun. There are gods of the moon, fire, thunder: the spirits live in the rivers and in woods, on mountains and in the sky. The world is divided into three areas – lower and upper world people.
Mansi worshipped the Golden woman – a certain idol, which the storyteller Bazhov depicted in the form of Ognevushki-poskakushki, and honored the Great heavenly elk. Each house and each village had their own totems in the form of dragonflies and birds. Mansi believed in the “virgin Forest” – MIS ne, which brings the hunter luck and honored the old man Iiby of OICA (owl). They revered the weathered rocks of the Urals as living beings and celebrated the “day of the bear”. It stands out in their folklore legends of the deluge.
Existed in Muncie and a relic of the belief in giants, whom they called Мēӈквы. Supposedly this was a huge guards, the keepers of the pagan temples, they are aggressive towards people, and hunters preferred to avoid them and try to avoid them.
Khanty Beliefs included the cult of the reindeer, the cult of the horse and hitching post, shamanism was underdeveloped. The shaman did not participate in the holiday bear, Khanty celebrated more modestly.
Because of the extensive habitat of the Khanty people is covered with tundra and marshes, spread the worship of anthropomorphic frog —like a certain ancestor. Alive was considered everything that could move snow, water, rain. Used greater honor “boss” Obi – “the old Man of the Ob”, his idol was described as “a kind of Board, his nose like a trumpet jestana, flock glass, the horns on the head are small” (article ethnographer E. T. Causeway “global idea about the underlying kinship of all life”).
Khanyou believed that the floaters can appear to people in the form of mermaids – chelovekoraz. Pagan temples Khanty arranged in secretive places, which did not admit outsiders, and the idols in the case of forced migration have taken with me.

Maya Novik

Source:
© Russian Seven

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