Judenfrei: which cities of the USSR, the Germans declared

History 31/12/19 Judenfrei: which cities of the USSR, the Germans declared “free of Jews”

the most sinister crimes of Hitler’s Nazism refers to the mass extermination of Jews. In the minds of Adolf Hitler and most of the leaders of the national socialist party in the dense tangle was associated “struggle with Jewry”, the hatred of Bolshevism and militant antisemism. The war in the East was presented to the Germans, brainwashed speeches of the Fuhrer, the struggle for living space occupied by the racially inferior Slavs, led by “Jewish Bolshevik government”. It is not surprising that one of the main goals of the conquest of territories in the European part of the USSR was to create a “Judenfrei”.

What is Judenfrei

the Term “judenfrei” — literally “free of Jews” — the Nazis called the city, the Jewish population which had been completely destroyed or sent to the death camps. The authorship of this word does not belong to Hitler. It was first used in the late XIX century. Anti-Semitism, which flourished then in Germany, expressed, among other things, in the fact that some Newspapers have published lists of public places – baths, parks, theaters, etc. – “free from Jews”, where “honest Germans” may “breathe freely”. These public places were declared “Judenfrei”. Hitler, infected with anti-Semitism in his youth, has adopted this expression, but it was under him it acquired a much more sinister meaning.

Judenfrei Europe

Originally, the term was only used in Germany, where before the arrival of the Nazis to power entire cities began to declare itself Judenfrei, in every way “forcing” Jews from its territory, creating unbearable conditions for living and doing business. With the coming to power of Hitler, the situation has worsened, began mass arrests of Jews who were sent to concentration camps. When the Second world war, “clear from the Jewin” began the occupied territories primarily Poland. On the territory of Poland was created by those terrible concentration camps, including Sobibor, Treblinka, Majdanek and others. As a result, by 1941 “territories Judenfrei” was declared the town of Gelnhausen (Germany), Luxembourg, and all General government administrative entity created on the territory of Poland. In 1942, “cleansed of Jews” was declared Banat (region in Serbia), Belgrade, Vienna. In 1943 Judenfrei was Berlin.

Judenfrei in the USSR

the Jews living in the Western regions of the USSR occupied by the Germans, were subjected to systematic destruction. As a rule, the “Jewish question” was solved by killing, dealt with the Einsatzgruppen of the SS – a special unit that dealt with the civilian population of the occupied lands. In total, the USSR was destroyed 900 thousand Jews. On the territory of Ukraine and the Baltic States in this work involved collaborators from among the local population in Odessa and Odessa region, the ethnic cleansing carried out by the Romanian army.

In the Baltics, the destruction of the Jews took such a scale that Estonia in December 1941 was declared “Judenfrei”. International Commission for investigation of Nazi crimes established that during the occupation period in Estonia survived only 12 Jews.

In the Western Ukraine before the arrival of the Germans, a wave of pogroms. Jews were murdered with special cruelty, sparing neither children nor old men, neither women. In many places the arrival of the Nazis, most Jews had been destroyed. In Lviv during the pogroms organized by Ukrainian nationalists, killed 6 thousand Jews in Lutsk with participation of the occupation authorities destroyed 2 thousand Jews in Rivne – 21 thousand. The town of Stryi (Lviv region) in 1943 was declared Judenfrei. Most of the Jews were shot in the forest near the city, 5 thousand people sent to the death camp.

Odessa was first occupied by the Romaniansand, and then by German troops for nearly three years, from October 1941 to April 1944. Before the war in this city almost half of the population (about 100 thousand people) were Jews.

the Invaders began with the fact that burned to death in an empty powder warehouse 25 thousand people, most of whom were Jews. Others systematically destroyed the entire period of occupation. They were shot on the spot or sent to concentration camps, including Bogdanovka, where he had a “factory of death”.

In 1942, Odessa was declared Judenfrei.

By the time the city was liberated, there survived only 600 of the Jews.

Olga Melnikova

© Russian Seven

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