Fought as national units of the red Army in the Great Patriotic

History 10/01/20 fought As national units of the red Army in the Great Patriotic

the use of the armed forces representatives of different peoples of the multinational Russia has been important for several centuries. As inclusion in the Empire of the new lands, the use of the population for military purposes was solved in different ways. Some people are completely assimilated, while others have retained their identity to a greater extent. And just from the latter, foreigners and infidels, at all times, and created national units.

we should Not think that in the army, only Russian or even only the Slavs, especially that in the Empire no Ukrainians and Belarusians were not. To those Nations with whom the issue was decided especially, treated the inhabitants of the Caucasus and Central Asia, the indigenous peoples of Siberia and the far North.

In the Soviet Union had to solve the same question. In the red Army before 1938 there were several divisions that were considered national. They were in the military service representatives of a nation, and command staff, including Junior, was in the vast majority of Slavs. However, before the war from this system declined, although the former national divisions still remained a predominance of representatives of individual Nations. That had to do with the specificity of these compounds. So in the mountain division were called in the first place the inhabitants of mountain regions of the Caucasus or Central Asia.

Return to formation during the war of national compounds in the red Army was caused by two reasons.

the First was the lack of people. Huge losses of the first months of the war had to compensate, and one of the solutions was the involvement of representatives of different nationalities, which was not previously called.

the First national division arose spontaneously. They were formed in the Caucasus in 1941, which by that time also the Caucasian peoples of other human resources have almost was not. For the first time they were used in the Crimea in 1942. It was a division of war formed in the reduced States, somehow armed. To this common problem, added full neobychainoi personnel military Affairs, to train which, by virtue of ignorance of the Russian language was impossible.

Officially, the formation of national connections began with the resolution of the State Defense Committee No 894сс of 13 November 1941 was Planned to build 20 cavalry divisions and 15 brigades. To form connections had local nationalities, by using and command staff of the same nationality. According to Soviet sources, during the war, was formed by 66 military units that were considered national: 26 infantry and mountain infantry divisions, 22 cavalry divisions and 18 brigades. Of this number, only 37 military units involved in the fighting.

the Level of the formed compounds in the majority of them were low. The Directive of the General staff from March 25, 1942, concluded that “the division is not prepared enough, not put together and not meet all the requirements of modern warfare”. As a result, most connections in Central Asia has been disbanded. The North Caucasus has a different situation, since the second half of 1942 there came the war. A part of the Transcaucasian front to the beginning of the fighting were 11 national connections, but most of them were kept on the border with Turkey or the secondary sectors of the front. Instead, using the remnants of broken parts and reducing the rear, formed eight infantry divisions, which played a major role in the battle for the Caucasus. Know personal instructions of the head of the establishment and staffing of the NCO troops, Colonel-General of Schadenko, ordered, “first of all, use all resources remains Russian, Belarusians, Ukrainians” for new formations and deposits.

At the same timehow many divisions that were formed as a national, went through the war, have been awarded guards status. But we must remember that a national Union was originally formed with a large number of Slavs, and after the first combat losses, the completion of the division came not on a national basis. As a result, if representatives of a certain nationality was originally 60-70%, after the first serious battle they had 30-40%.

the Second reason for the emergence of the national forces was purely political. It was necessary to show that the red Army fight together representatives of all peoples.

As it was seen, for example, the 201st Latvian rifle division. Historian and journalist Evgeny Krutikov writes that since GKO order No. 383 of August 3, 1941 the division was assembled natives of Lithuania (of all nationalities) who had to evacuate. They added the residents of Novosibirsk and Saratov regions – the descendants of deportees to Siberia and the Volga region the participants of the Polish uprising of 1863. That lasted for almost half of the original personnel. The division had 35% of the Jews, the highest percentage in the history of the red army. Latvian language almost no one knew the entire command structure was Russian. A similar situation was with the Estonian and Lithuanian units.

Although the red Army really fought the representatives of almost all the peoples of the USSR, most of them call for equal rights and served together with everyone. All attempts to create a fully national units has not justified itself, and proved impossible due to the lack of national command personnel. And the few division, called national, was such in name only, representatives of the Slavic peoples they dominated, especially in command positions.

Cyril Shishkin

© Russian Seven

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