History 04/01/20 For the women at the front could send to Shtrafbat
In the penal battalions and companies of the red Army during the great Patriotic war were not only men, but women soldiers. Why punish the sending of “certain death” of the fair sex, and what were their conditions of service?
the Women came to the front not only on a voluntary basis. In 1942, the mobilization of hundreds of thousands of girls in the defense forces, air force and communications. About half a million residents of the USSR was in military service thanks to the promoters of the Komsomol. In the army women are often replaced positions of a support nature, becoming drivers, telephone operators, librarians, but they are completely subordinate to military regulations. In the case of committing “military or ordinary offences” (except serious) female it was subject to trial by military tribunals, and in June 1942 went to the battalions.
What in practice could be the misconduct of female soldiers?
Researcher Victoria Chapurin in an article published in the “Bulletin of Tomsk state University” quotes from cases sent to penal battalion Sergeant Claudia Mirinoi. The girl, as was written in the order the deprivation of a military rank, “disorganized the work platoon” and allow themselves “obscene language” to the address of the company commander, “sabotaging” the “combat missions in road works”. When she was invited to the headquarters battalion, emotional girl “deserted”, but was captured at a checkpoint. About the motives of a soldier in the securities mentioned.
of Course, given such laconic documents, we cannot exclude abuses of male officers who used the Tribunal as a “revenge” women, denying them sexual contact.
he recalled How the participant of the great Patriotic war, doctor of Philology Sakmara Ilyenko, in part, where she served, the girl was condemned to the penal battalion for trying to commit suicide after her as she argued before the Tribunal, stuck Sergeant.
In 1942-1943 women who were in penal battalions, had to bear the burden equally with men, though none of them subsequently left this memoir. According to the Sakmara Ilyenko, a “unit” could return from the penal battalion alive.
the Main danger of service in the battalions was the fact that these military units were sent to the most “hot” sectors of the front. Monthly losses reached 50% of the staff – several times more than in “normal” companies and battalions. Because in the penal company were dangerous contingent, for example, criminals who thought they had “nothing to lose”, for the girls also had a higher risk of rape.
usually stay in the battalions was limited to three months. “Atone for guilt before the Motherland” women released from penal companies ahead of time. In the book “Myths about the penal battalion” writer Vadim Telitsin V. mentions a soldier by the name of Kondratieff, who was 13 March 1943, distinguished himself in battle, which not only was removed from the list “stratnet”, but also received the award.
approval of certain journalists that there were entire battalions, formed from the “at fault” women historians believe yet unproven in connection with the paucity of sources.
In practice, the fate of the girls after the Tribunal decides differently on the basis, apparently, of the specific needs of military units. For example, the chief of staff of the 8th Guards army major General Vladimirov in August 1943, was ordered to send convicted women in the penal part of, and to the front as nurses. The reason for this was the note No. 2 to article 28 of the criminal code of the RSFSR, which assumed a delay of punishment for criminals and sending them to the front.
And next month, in September 1943, the commander of all armies and fronts received a Directive of General staff No. 1484/2/org., that has spread a similar measure for all military units. Since that time, women were no longer sent to the penal company.
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