History 30/01/20 For which the Nazis executed the two brothers of Felix Dzerzhinsky
Of the five brothers Dzerzhinskih only one has dedicated himself selflessly to the service of the revolution. The fate of the others were different: someone was executed by the Gestapo, who had lived a little longer, and someone at an advanced age died away from home.
In 1967, in a family of impoverished nobles-nobles of Edmund I. and Helena Ignatievna was born. The boy was named Witold, but less than a year later my parents had to grieve first son. The baby died.
Perhaps that is why about the older brother, “the knight of revolution” Soviet bibliography is rarely remembered as silent and my sister Wanda. If the other two sisters Dona and Jadwiga – lived a long life, Wanda is not noted and adulthood. She tragically died at the hands of someone from his own brothers. Whether Stas, whether Felix was playing with a gun and accidentally shot her.
In the five years before the birth of Felix appeared in the family of Stanislav. He is the only one of the brothers, who after graduating remained in the family estate in Dzerzhinovo. Ambition he had, he was never married, lived quietly in his father’s house and served in the Vilna Bank. But to die of old age in his own bed he was prevented by fatal circumstances.
After 1917, the local forest full of robbers and runaway soldiers. They found out about the “wealthy banker” of Dzerzhinovo and decided to Rob him. The owner was killed, the catch of the robbers turned out to be fine. The job Bank is not guaranteed a huge state – of safes full of money and jewels, the thieves are not found.
Casimir was two years older than Felix. He graduated from the gymnasium in Vilna. Higher engineering education received at the German University of Karlsruhe. In 1922-1923, he taught mathematics at the University of Tartu. He then worked in Warsaw the Ministry. VyAh retirement, he moved with his wife to Ivyanets (Belarus), where they found the war. The couple were active members of the Polish underground, and within the framework of its activities “collaborated” with the Germans, extracting the most valuable information. 78-year-old Casimir became the city’s mayor, his wife, 46-year-old Lucie (nationality German), joined the Gestapo as a translator. In particular, the spouses transferred Dzerzhinskii data helped to destroy in June 1943, the Nazi garrison in the town of Ivyanets.
the Suspect in these middle-aged and respectable people of the underground, it was almost impossible, but Casimir Edmundovich actually, I signed myself and my wife a death sentence. In the presence of a certain Anna the Lame he repeatedly stated, “harmful thoughts”, as the 38-year-old receptionist of bread brought to where it should. During the search of the Casimir found letters from his brother, a Bolshevik, and his portrait, as well as correspondence with local party leaders. As a member of the anti-Nazi resistance, he was executed with his wife in 1943 on the outskirts of Ivenets.
two years younger than Felix was Ignatius. He, like his father, has long worked as a geography teacher after graduating from the physics and mathematics of Moscow state University. Then got a promotion and went into the service in Polish Ministry of education. That Ignatius made for the brother of Felix, who was arrested in 1907, a cash Deposit. Ignatius had survived the war and died in 1953 in socialist Poland at the age of 74 years.
the youngest of the brothers Dzerzhinskih devoted his life to medicine. Before the revolution, he graduated from the medical school of Moscow state University and went to work as a doctoral student (practitioner’s gathering material for a thesis) in Burachevsky psychiatric hospital in the Tver region. After defending his thesis he moved to Kharkov, where he quickly became one of the leading experts in the field of psychiatry. In 1913 he headed the district hospital, and two years later the Department of psychiatry of the Kharkiv University.
the October revolution had not taken and was arrested for anti-Soviet propaganda in 1919 year. While the brother actually signed his death warrant. Vladislav was saved by the intervention of Lenin: to the family, the leader of the revolution treated tenderly. Recall that he was born in a large family, and his older brother was executed for an attempt on Alexander III. Lenin urged the region to abolish the death penalty.
In 1922, emigrated to Poland. He was enlisted in the reserve, and then called up for military medical service in the ranks of the Polish army. He rose to the rank of Colonel of the sanitary troops. Was engaged in neurological research at the hospital of łódź, wrote the first Polish textbook on neurology. He Was Awarded The Golden Cross Of Merit. He retired and settled near the Polish Zgierz.
In March 1942 he was arrested as a “brother of the famous Russian Bolshevik”. The Germans tried to persuade the Professor to cooperate, demanding his participation in experiments on prisoners. Vladislav Edmundovich refused. Among his other poles were executed in public as “the chief of the Soviet secret police”. It happened in the forest, near the road to Ozorków.
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