Bela kun: how many Russians were executed in a Hungarian revolutionary in the Crimea

History 23/01/20 Bela kun: how many Russians were executed in a Hungarian revolutionary in the Crimea

the Leader of the Hungarian Communist Bela kun (1886-1938), the name of which is still called street in St. Petersburg, Simferopol and other cities, left a bloody footprint in the two countries.

the Path to the revolution

Bela kun was born in Transylvania, in the territory of present Romania. Bela was born in a mixed family, his father was a Jew who converted to Calvinism – the religion of the mother white. In 16 years, Kuhn joined the Hungarian social democratic party, and at 19, became the instigator of strikes by workers in Colorware (now Cluj in Romania), for which he served a first prison term of 15 months.
In Russia kun got an ordinary Austro-Hungarian army in 1914. Socialist beliefs did not prevent him to take up arms to “protect” the monarchy of the Habsburgs. However, in 1914, almost all the socialist European countries were on the side of their governments. And for the socialists of Germany and Austria-Hungary war with tsarist Russia was a special “justification” as the war with “the most reactionary regimes” in Europe. Only in Russian captivity, where Bela kun was in 1916, he became an “internationalist”.

In Soviet Russia

the Bolsheviks from the very first day began to break they signed on 3 March 1918 the Brest peace with Germany, Austria-Hungary and their allies. The contract is established, the exchange of prisoners and forbade campaigning among them. Despite this, in March 1918, when the RCP(b) was a Hungarian group of prisoners led by Kun. April 3, 1918, began publishing a newspaper in the Hungarian language “the Social revolution”.
Repatriation of prisoners of war was delayed. Instead, the prisoners, the Hungarians were asked to join the Red Army. Because the striking force of the counterrevolution in the summer of 1918 in the Volga region, the Urals and in Siberia the Czechoslovak corps, the Bolsheviks decided that the course would be to oppose his veinsgrove, breathing old tribal hatred of the Czechs and Slovaks.
the Return of kun in Hungary for this reason, too, was postponed, although Lenin himself and appointed him as the leader of the future revolution in Hungary. While Coon was engaged in the organization of the Magyar red army units, which, in addition to war with the Czechs and the Russian white guards were also carried out punitive expeditions against Russian peasants.
in the Autumn of 1918 collapsed Austro-Hungarian Empire. On its ruins arose the nation-state. Leapfrog began governments. Bolsheviks organized a hasty redeployment of the revolutionary cadres in Hungary. Austria-Hungary surrendered on 3 November 1918, and November 17th Béla kun arrived in Budapest.

the Hungarian Soviet Republic

the First time after the fall of the monarchy in Budapest there was the left-liberal government, which proclaimed a parliamentary Republic. But it could not cope with radical public sentiment. Oil poured into the fire of the imperialist policy of the victorious Entente, put forward large territorial claims against Hungary in favour of Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia.
In Hungary there was a peculiar situation. Leftists are objectively made by the nationalists who resisted the dismemberment of the country. While bourgeois politicians were ready for the suppression of the revolution, to make concessions to the Entente. The liberal government fell, replaced by social Democrats. But those seeking to expand their social base left, went to an Alliance with the Communists. Especially funny that Kuhn and several other Communist leaders at that time were in prison for armed attack on the newspaper of the social Democrats. March 21, 1919, an agreement was concluded, by which Hungary was proclaimed a Soviet Republic, and the government equally was the social Democrats and the Communists.
upon Entering the government, the Communists, led by Kun started (pursuant to a secret telegram of Lenin Kun March 23) immediately ousting the social Democrats. Vskore there was only one social Democrat, Sandor Garbai, a former nominee of the Prime Minister. And how joked, mátyás rákosi (the future head of Hungary under Stalin), who commanded the Hungarian red Army, Garbai kept only because he was the only non Jew in the government and could sign the death sentences on Saturdays. This, of course, was a joke, because the Communists of Jewish origin principle not adhered to the Jewish commandments.
the Actual leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic was Bela kun, who held the post of Minister of foreign Affairs. However, in this as it did not recognize any state except Soviet Russia. With regard to the scale of the red terror in Hungary was officially executed 590 people, in fact several times more, but the scale of the white terror that followed surpassed it tenfold. 1 Aug 1919 Soviet Republic in Hungary fell under foreign intervention. Kun fled to Soviet Russia.

covered with blood of Crimea

the Most ominous page biography of the Hungarian-Russian Communist was the terror in the Crimea, arranged out there after the evacuation of the white army of Wrangel. Kun might have considered it as the revenge of the “world bourgeoisie” in the white terror in Hungary.
the Commander of the Soviet Southern front, Mikhail Frunze issued a proclamation of Amnesty to all white officers and soldiers who voluntarily laid down their arms. The next day after leaving the Crimea by Wrangel, November 17, 1920, the Crimean revolutionary Committee, headed by Bela Kun and Rosalia Countrywoman (Zalkind) issued an order on obligatory registration of all the whites, and civil institutions in the Crimea under the whites. Formally this was done ostensibly in order to help them to return to their previous areas of residence and to decide to work. But in the first days after registration began mass arrests and imprisonment. And prisoners were shot immediately, and the sentences are processed in groups of 200-300 arrested immediately.
kun at this time proudly declaredl in print: “Comrade Trotsky has said that he will not come to the Crimea, while in the Crimea remain at least one counter-revolutionary … [Crimea our] quickly move to the overall revolutionary development of Russia.” Terror in the Crimea is a separate issue. Suffice it to say that by the most conservative estimates there were destroyed not less than 50 thousand people. The executions went far beyond the lists of registered. Among the dead were thousands of women and children.
kun also widely deployed terror against the Crimean Tatars, who, under Wrangel was created in the mountains of the groups “green” and wanted the independence of Crimea. They also believed in the Soviet Amnesty. Kuhn initially used their leader Balamutova to convince others to surrender, after which all who surrendered were shot.
the Red terror was raging in the Crimea all winter 1920/21, In March 1921, the Central Executive Committee withdrew kun and Zemlyachka from the Crimea and appointed a Commission to verify their activities. However, the new commissioners from the center only slightly diminished the scale of repression. And the main thing – organizers of the massacre received no penalty. The same Coon was then employee of the Comintern. In 1938, he as an “enemy of the people” shot.

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