As white Russians fought in the Civil war in China

History 14/01/20 As white Russians fought in the Civil war in China

Civil war spilled beyond the borders of Russia more than 2 million people. Many of them have been the crucible of combat, were well-trained and I feared nothing. They eked out a miserable existence and was willing to do anything to improve their situation.

the Whites, who had gone to China, especially in poverty. If in Europe there was support for asylum here she was, surrounded by people of alien culture, and ignorance of language and writing is not allowed to get out of poverty.

the Plight of the military decided to use the Chinese military in the Civil war, 1924-1937 It was a confrontation the conservative party of China, the Kuomintang, headed by politician, Chiang Kai-shek, who was supported by the United States and Germany, and the Communist-minded regions of China with the support of the red army, Inner Mongolia and Revolutionary Turkestan.

Join the foreign Legion!

on the Eve of the conflict, in 1924, the Marshal Chang-TSO-Lin had the idea of creating a foreign Legion of the officers and soldiers of the Russian Empire, appeared in China. Unlike the peasants, the Chinese, the Russians were professionals and did not need training. In addition, Marshall wanted to use them to intimidate the Communists.

Created by the detachment placed under the command of Marshal Zhang zu-Chan, who was in Russia, I knew Russian and even fought on the side of Russia in the Russo-Japanese war. In 1922 he had already hired several whites instructors.

At the head of the detachment was raised to Lieutenant Colonel Konstantin Petrovich Nechaev, a participant in the Ice campaign and colleague ataman Semyonov held in Harbin taxi driver. He had authority and was President of the Officers Union.

the Whites – soldiers and officers saw in the war an opportunity to resist the Bolsheviks and to Express themselves. The squad began to willingly join, and officers often held dueosti ordinary, and I agreed to do it because of poverty.

Not punitive, and the combat squad

the Chinese decided to execute all agreements and amounted to a contract in which the duration of detachment was determined by the end of the war, Russian had to fight only in certain regions and had the right to leave the squad, notifying superiors for two months. The contract was itemized, the salaries, food, payments in case of injury or death, and disputes were to be invited arbitrator is the representative of a foreign power. It was emphasized that whites can not be used in punitive operations against the civilian population in military actions against foreign nationals. The detachment was obliged to fight on the front line, Russian crime was punished according to the laws of wartime Czarist Russia. Internal regulations and terms of service determined by the laws and statutes of the Russian army.

Ahead, on Shanghai!

the Squad Nechayev quickly replenished; his appearance was perceived as an opportunity to prove themselves. In 1925, the troop strength ranged from 500 to 1,500, and the maximum number reached 3,500 people.

according to the article, “Soldiers of fortune” in the Civil war of China of the 1920s,” historian Vasily Petrovich Pashin, weapons squad left much to be desired. The troopers were without horses, gunners without guns. However, the rumor about the fierce whites spread quickly in the camp of the enemy that enabled the squad at the beginning of the fighting without difficulty, to win more victories, turned the enemy in flight.

Nechaev was immediately promoted to major General and received a number of awards.

the biggest win of the detachment was the capture of Shanghai in early April, 1925. In battle, a special role was played by the armored train of Nechaeva. As he described the events summary of the OGPU, sent to the address of people’s Commissar for foreign Affairs, Chicherin, it was the detachment of Nechaev became the decisive factor that allowed the troops of Marshal Zhang zu-Chan to take the city.

So began the procession of whites in China.

the Officer the soldier – ne brother?

However, the situation within the group was difficult. Between officers and lower ranks was a mutual hatred. Officers still dreamed of a triumphant return to the homeland, believing that the squad is only the beginning, the soldiers did not want to fight with the Bolsheviks, leaving hope for a comeback. In the squad they joined in order not to starve to death, but here earnings was questionable: the Chinese paid little and rarely, and the award was often assigned to officers.

to Keep the discipline was able, intimidating soldiers for the atrocities of the GPU, but it gradually fell, the detachment spreading drunkenness, desertion began and, as a consequence, the turnover of personnel.

Supporters of Chiang Kai-shek hated Russian as strangers and mercenaries, and the euphoria of the capture of Shanghai evaporated. Already two weeks after the capture of the city troop strength was reduced in 30 times!

Despite the hardships, meager rations and the constant change of the composition of the squad Nechayev lasted until 1928. Gradually, the recruitment of new volunteers has become ineffective. The military did not go to the party, but did not consider the civil service as the implementation of the special mission, and relied on earnings, which almost was not.

By the summer of 1928, nearly all the officers was made of orderlies and soldiers, the squad swept the squabbles and intrigues. In the autumn squad was trying to equip a mob of shelters that led to its collapse. He Nechaev, who went on the attack “with only one stack”, in 1926 he was seriously wounded – he took the leg, he later suffered a stroke and was forced to resign from the army in 1928.

he was Shot and rehabilitated

However, the war in China continued, in 1930 Nechaev attempted a new organization of Russian parts. According to the reports of the OGPU in the Northern Manchuria, he managed to create a “Union of Sandance”, which consisted of nearly 600 people, but it was a political entity, not part of the military. The Union supported the Marshal Zhang zu-Chan, but too quickly fell apart.

During the Second World war Nechayev was in charge of the Affairs of the emigration of the Dairine. After the victory of the Soviet Union, he was arrested by SMERSH and 5 February 1946 shot in Chita. Unlike other “Semyonovsky”, Nechaev was rehabilitated by office of public Prosecutor of Transbaikalian military circle in 1992.

Maya Novik

© Russian Seven

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