History 19/02/20 KackadКак the Soviet Union wanted to saddle Iran a Soviet Republic in 1920
Exporting the revolution to the East, Soviet Russia reached the Shah of Iran. And, oddly enough, the Persians, despite the complexity of the political situation, were willing to accept the ideas of socialism.
Overthrow of the bourgeoisie
In April 1920, in the Iranian province of Gilan rebellion broke out under the leadership of Sheikh Mohammed Hiabani, whose goal was the overthrow of the Iranian government and its supporting the British. Soon, the insurgency engulfed the entire Northern Iran – one after the other settlements came under the control of the rebels. The success of democratic forces in Persia could not fail to draw the attention of the government of Soviet Russia.
back in the fall of 1919, after the defeat of the main forces of the whites Leon Trotsky had plans of export of revolution in the near East. Then this idea could not be implemented. But by the spring of 1920, when Soviet power was extended to Azerbaijan, it was possible to threaten on the bigger.
At the beginning of 1920 the commander of the Turkistan front, Mikhail Frunze wrote to the revolutionary military Council: “there Will be large expenses in connection with the organization of the revolutionary forces on the territory of Persia”. For military operations Frunze asked Moscow to supply weapons and ammunition.
Waiting for the arrival of the red army, the leaders of the Communist movement in the East of the Turks, Mustafa Subhi and Iranian Sultan-zadeh appealed to the Soviet government about creation in Russia the Arabian revolutionary parts. “If there is support 20-30 thousand people, the working people of Persia will not only be delivered from the English imperialists, but once and for all be liberated from their own exploiters and will be included in the fraternal family of Soviet republics”, – was mentioned in the message.
Take by force
However, confidence in the fact that the Persian Communist militia will achieve the delivernnyh purposes was not. All revolutionary questions to the Soviet leadership had to decide. But for the invasion of Persia needed a reason. And he was found. In the port of Anzali remained a large number of fleet vehicles of Anton Denikin, taken from the Russian harbours. They had to return. Trotsky stressed: “the Cleansing of the Caspian sea from the White fleet should be done, come what may. If you need troops, then it needs to be done. Persia is unable to disarm the white court.” Lenin against the operation did not object.
17 may 1920, from Baku to Enzeli on the course came out of the Volga-Caspian military flotilla under command of Fyodor Raskolnikov and Sergo Ordzhonikidze. A few days later the ships of the White guard was returned under the control of the red army.
But Anzelika operation had a larger purpose. On the eve of the entrance of the port of Enzeli Raskolnikov met with the leader of the national liberation movement of Iran Mirza Heaps Khan. It was decided that undercover Russian troops Tunb Khan will inflate the fire of the Persian socialist revolution.
June 1, 1920, the main Iranian revolutionary began to act. In the struggle with the Shah and the British helped him for about two and a half thousand Soviet sailors, who had 12 guns and 40 machine guns. Three days later insurgent troops Tunb Khan occupied the city of Rasht, capital of Gilan province. A day later, after consultations with Moscow, was proclaimed Gilyanska Soviet socialist Republic. However, it was pre-negotiated that Russia will not interfere in the internal Affairs of the newly created state. Then was formed the military revolutionary Council, the government and the army. The head of the Republic became Tunb Khan.
in less than a couple of days, as the Heaps Khan had disagreements with the local Communists. He did not support agrarian reform. In response, he called the petty-bourgeois nationalist, accused of treason. 9 Jun Tunb Khan was forced to resign from the revolutionary Cabinet. And on the night of 31 July, all supporters Groups Khan was also expelled from the government, and all power was in the hands of the revolutionaries far-left orientation. Headed the new office of a former colleague of Piles Khan Ehsanullah Khan. A major role in the coup played a detachment of the red army to 800 men, deployed on the eve of Rasht.
the next day just created the Persian Red Army captured a fortified city Manjil. Inspired by the Iranian Communists wrote to Moscow: “the British are retreating. This victory won in that day when the will of the revolutionary masses and вὀйска Persian Republic unable to fight polyanske the government Kuchuk Khan replaced by the Iranian revolutionary Committee government active struggle closely with Soviet Russia”.
By August, according to the headquarters of the Persian red Army, the time had come to March on Tehran. However, the reality was more complicated. Exhausted from the prolonged fighting poorly trained worker-peasant regiments could no longer continue the offensive. And in Moscow knew perfectly well that in the conditions of the Soviet-Polish war support on the Persian revolution, they are not able to.
part of the Persian red Army was forced to retreat and take up defensive positions previously conquered positions. At the same time, the Soviet government recognized the need for a peaceful coexistence with Tehran. In March 1921 between the RSFSR and Persia signed a Treaty of non-aggression and cooperation, which provides for the division of the Caspian sea and the possibility of a Soviet invasion in case of implementing Tehran’s hostile anti-Soviet policy. Moscow, in turn, has pledged to withdraw from Northern Persia.
Following the withdrawal from Persia of the Soviet troops in July 1921, the Iranian revolutionaries finally quarreled among themselves. The Shah, taking advantage of the infighting, regained control over the Caspian coast of Iran.
© Russian Seven
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