Another 03/02/20 As before the war collaborated with the NKVD and the Gestapo
After the outbreak of the Second world war, the interests of special services of the USSR and the Third Reich are intertwined in the territory of partitioned Poland. For the settlement of disputes in 1939-1940 between the representatives of the NKVD and the Gestapo held a series of meetings, which historians have called the “conference”.
the Meeting, 1939
One of the first of the secret agreements of the NKVD and the Gestapo told the Polish General Tadeusz Komorowski immigrant. As stated in his memoirs, written in 1950, the intelligence agencies of the USSR and Germany agreed on the broad questions of occupation, and, in particular, on the joint struggle against the Polish insurgency (future Army).
the View that the communication between the NKVD and the Gestapo were “conference”, formulated in 1991, Anglo-American historian Robert conquest. Agree with him and Polish researchers. According to józef Dembinski, the first talks between the Gestapo and the KGB were held in Brest on September 27 the parties have signed the agreement “On joint actions against the Polish agitators.” In November in przemyśl were discussed the issues of displacement and exchange of prisoners of war. Many of the captured Polish ordinary the Soviet Union gave the Germans. In the same month, the Soviet Embassy in Berlin there was contact between the chief of the SS Heinrich Himmler and Vsevolod Merkulov, Deputy Lavrenty Beria.
the Conference in Zakopane
One of the most important historians believe conference February 20, 1940, held in two villas in the Carpathian resort of Zakopane. The German delegation, according to Derbinskogo was headed by SS obersturmbannfuhrer Adolf Eichmann, infamous for its role in the final solution of the Jewish question, the Soviet – Grigory Litvinov, presumably the son of the Minister of foreign Affairs Maxim Litvinov (ironically, a Jew). The Polish Institute of national remembrance even posted a photografia where Litvinov with a drink in hand, says a toast in the company of high-ranking Germans Fritz Fischer, Helmut Becker and Hoffmeier.
the Fact of the meeting confirmed by the Russian candidate of historical Sciences, specialist in the topic of Katyn Natalia Lebedeva. According to her, in Zakopane was established a “joint training center security services”. What the Germans and Russians learned from each other? We can recall the words of the historian Robert Louis Kotnov (Coatney):
“the Soviet NKVD shared its well-proven technology of terror and destruction with the Nazi SS (the only Nazi “improvement” compared to the Soviet methods of extermination was to use poisonous gas)”.
However, it is very doubtful, considering that in those days, 1940 took place the trial of the former people’s Commissar of state security Nikolai Yezhov, who among other things was accused that he borrowed the “torture” methods of the Gestapo and used them in 1937. In fact, “technology of genocide” both sides were well versed and without foreign experience. Most likely, the NKVD and the Gestapo were shared with each other information about the Polish rebels. Right after the meeting in Zakopane, the Germans launched operation “AB” – the murder of thousands of Polish figures associated with the resistance.
the Krakow Protocol
Another agreement the parties signed in March 1940 in kraków. According to Professor George Watson, at this meeting, was decided the fate of the interned Polish officers (later executed at Katyn). This arrangement is called the Krakow Protocol. It is expected that the German side knew in advance that officers will be destroyed, and okayed it.
However, other experts do not see sufficient evidence of a link of the Cracow conference with the Katyn affair. Refutes the point of view of Watson, for example, the author of a major monograph “Between Berlin and Moscow. German-Soviet relations, 1939-1941.” Slawomir Dembsky.
In fact, Krakow was discussed, CTon refugees has the right to return to their place of residence and who is not. Russian historian Oleg Wishlaw found in the archives of the German foreign Ministry paper, showing that the March 29 Krakow came to the Soviet Control Commission for the evacuation of refugees. From the NKVD of the USSR in the delegation included the Deputy head of Department of frontier troops Vladimir Ignatov. In virtue of the office he was hardly authorized to decide anything on such issues as the fate of Polish officers.
Add that promulgated in 1990-ies in the newspaper “Memory” “General cooperation agreement” between the NKVD and the Gestapo professional historians consider it a forgery.
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