History 07/01/20 frame from the TV series”A. J. I. L. R”: what did Yezhov with the wives of the “traitors”

During the years of Stalinist repression through the Akmola camp was about 20 thousand women. Thrown in the icy Kazakh steppe, they lived in terrible and inhuman conditions. Wives, mothers, sisters, daughters “enemies of the people” — many of them never returned to the family.

On stage in hell

the History of Akmola camp began on 15 August 1937, when the people’s Commissar of internal Affairs Nikolai Yezhov has signed the decree about the arrest of the relatives of “traitors” who were convicted for espionage and sabotage. Each family “enemy of the people” plant card with the list of households. Special attention was paid to children over 15 years — they were called “socially dangerous”.

the apartments “traitors” were conducted a thorough search. Seized documents, valuables, “suspicious” literature. Women were allowed to take only the Essentials: underwear, personal hygiene items, clothing and shoes.

the early stages went to Akmola camp of wives of traitors of the Motherland, later nicknamed ALGERIA, in January 1938. Trains from Moscow, Rostov, Irkutsk stayed in the bare steppe, stiff 40-degree cold.

the Conditions were terrible. The women were forced to live in squalid huts made of Adobe bricks (a mixture of clay and straw). In each stood a two – or three hard bunks, which housed up to 300 prisoners. Those who do not fit, they slept on the icy floor. Under the roof were Windows without glass. They were stuffed with rags to somehow protect himself from severe frost.

the room had one sink. Despite the proximity of the lake, each prisoner was supposed only a bucket of water a week. The camp itself was surrounded by several rows of barbed wire, as if it were the most dangerous repeat offenders. Correspondence with relatives and parcels were strictly forbidden.

Not the victim, and accomplice

According to the researchers Alexander Daniel and Arseny Roginsky, for Joseph Stalin repressed women were not just wives, and almost the participants in the “dark deeds” of their husbands. Leader of the people believed that the views and opinions of women has always been on the side of their men.

According to the researchers, the logic Koby was simple: even if the wife did not participate in “counterrevolutionary activities” with men, then you certainly knew about it and sympathized with, and this made them participants of “crimes”.

Senior wives

the camp was serving his term spouses of members of the political, artistic and military elite of the Soviet country. In Algeria sat Elizabeth Arbatova the Tukhachevskiy — sister shot of Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky. Here dwelt the wife of the head of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the formal head of state — Mikhail Kalinin — Catherine. The husband himself rink Stalinist repression has managed to avoid.

In Algeria were incarcerated: mother of the ballerina Maya Plisetskaya — Rachel, the wife of Nikolai Bukharin, Anna, Creator of Children’s musical theater Natalia Sats, the famous singer Lidia Ruslanova. In short, present Soviet elite.

it was not Judged

In Akmola camp was not one of the convicted women. The trials of relatives of “enemies of the people” was not conducted. Their fate was engaged in a Special meeting of the NKVD. Repressed only acquainted with the decision and demanded to sign for it.

Children of Algeria

Despite the fact that the decree Yezhov was forbidden to refer to the camp pregnant, such women prisoners in Algeria was a lot. Rachel Plisetskaya recalled that with her in the barracks lived the pregnant women, and women with infants.

During the existence of Akmola camp, from 1938 to 1953, behind barbed wire born 1507 toddlers. However, historians claim that it is the official figure, the reality of the babies was much more. The fact that many have not withstood the severe conditions of life and died.

Those who survived, at the age of three was taken to the orphanage. Distraught mothers said that children will be risingVAT the real Soviet people, not like them “enemies” and “islandicum”.

Icy reeds

in Winter the only heat source in the frozen barracks, and there were reeds growing in the lake nearby. Even in the severe frost women were driven to collect “fuel”. Ice conventional digging shovels.

the Prisoners were given winter clothes, but the boots, warm pants, coats and mittens saved not all. Serving time at camp Maria Ances recalled that only in February 1938, there were about 100 cases of frostbite.

a Few days for the onion

Despite the unfavorable conditions of the Kazakh steppe, women were trying to farm. Grew onions, cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, and even cherries, apples and pears.

But none of this to him on the table were not all taken the camp authorities. According to the memoirs of a prisoner of Anfisa Kukushkina, the onion, carried to the barracks, could have put in solitary confinement for three days.

Nonfree free

In 1946 from Algeria began to release the first prisoner. But the freedom they left formally, in reality, remaining in the camp. The authorities need to report on the implementation of the five-year plan for the camp’s weaving factory, so the women were in no hurry to go home.

Only in 1953, ALGERIA were eliminated. In 2007, in its place was opened a memorial complex.

Ivan Proshkin

© Russian Seven

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